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COVID-19: Research Articles & Grey Literature

Information surveillance of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19).

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Last Updated: March 2021

This guide was created by Toronto Public Health (TPH) Library to link TPH staff to a selective list of online resources on the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19. We are grateful for our public health library colleagues across Ontario (i.e. Ontario Public Health Library Association members) who communicate regularly throughout the pandemic and share topics and resources of interest which were added to this guide.  

  • Some links in this guide are from other jurisdictions. If in doubt, always follow the guidance received from your local health officials (TPH COVID or Ontario COVID information).
  • As of February 11, 2020 this guide will be updated to reflect the new disease name (COVID-19)  but readers may notice that the previous name/s in earlier publications.
  • Disclaimer:  This guide is for informational purposes only. Please follow the advice of your local public health officials. 
  • The guide will be updated Monday - Friday.
  • For comprehensive searches, research questions, or comments on the guide please email TPH library

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Page Contents

Selective articles from MEDLINE, preprint sources or health organizations are listed below. Please  note that articles from medRxiv and bioRxiv "are preliminary reports that have not been peer-reviewed. They should not be regarded as conclusive, guide clinical practice/health-related behavior." For a complete list of articles on any topic please email TPH Library at

To request full text articles email or call 416-338-7865. 

Airborne or respiratory droplets

Allen, JGM, Linsey C. Recognizing and controlling airborne transmission of SARS‐CoV‐2 in indoor environments [PDF]. Indoor Air. 

Bays, DJN, M. H.; et al.Investigation of Nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 Transmission from Two Patients to Health Care Workers Identifies Close Contact but not Airborne Transmission Events. Infection control and hospital epidemiology [PDF]. DOI:

Bhardwaj, R., & Agrawal, A. (2020). Likelihood of survival of coronavirus in a respiratory droplet deposited on a solid surface. Physics of Fluids, 32(6), 061704. Retrieved from

Chaudhuri, S., Basu, S., Kabi, P., Unni, V. R., & Saha, A. (2020). Modeling the role of respiratory droplets in Covid-19 type pandemics. Physics of Fluids, 32(6), 063309. Retrieved from

Dbouk, T., & Drikakis, D. (2020a). On coughing and airborne droplet transmission to humans. Physics of Fluids, 32(5), 053310. Retrieved from

Dbouk, T., & Drikakis, D. (2020b). On respiratory droplets and face masks. Physics of Fluids, 32(6), 063303. Retrieved from

Li, Y-Y., Wang, J-X., & Chen, X. (2020). Can a toilet promote virus transmission? From a fluid dynamics perspective. Physics of Fluids, 32(6), 065107. Retrieved from

Schijven, JFV, Lucie C.; Swart, Arno; Meijer, Adam; Duizer, Erwin; de Roda Husman, Ana Maria. Exposure assessment for airborne transmission of SARS-CoV-2 via breathing, speaking, coughing and sneezing [PDF]medRxiv preprint [not peer-reviewed].  

Simpson, JPW, D. N.; Verco, L.; Carter, R.; Dzidowski, M.; Chan, P. Y. Measurement of airborne particle exposure during simulated tracheal intubation using various proposed aerosol containment devices during the COVID-19 pandemic [PDF]. Anaesthesia 10.1111/anae.15188

Verma, S., & Dhanak, M., & Frankenfield, J. (2020). Visualizing the effectiveness of face masks in obstructing respiratory jets. Physics of Fluids, 32(6), 061708. Retrieved from

Antibodies, Immunity or Re-infection

Grey Literature

COVID-19: Health Impacts (Clinical Characteristics, Illness Severity, Morbidity & Mortality)

Grey Literature

COVID-19 and Underlying Health Conditions

COVID-19 Variants

Grey Literature Sources

City of Hamilton Public Health Services

Shared Library Services Partnership

Public Health Ontario

  • Ontario Agency for Health Protection and Promotion (Public Health Ontario). COVID-19 UK variant VOC202012/01– what we know so far. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer for Ontario; 2020. 

Health Canada

  • Statement on the variants of COVID-19 virus found in the United Kingdom and South Africa [12-24-2020]




spike protein mutations observed in the United Kingdom – 20 December 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020

Imperial College (UK)

NERVTAG (UK) Meeting Minutes

  • New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group (NERVTAG) December 18th meeting:

  • New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group (NERVTAG)  December 21th meeting:

  • PHE statement on Variant of Concern and new Variant Under Investigation

COVID-19 Genomics UK Consortium


Public Health England (PHE)


Evergreen Sources (Latest Information)

Emergence of New VOCs

Analysis of Mutations and Strains 

Wang, R., Chen, J., Gao, K. et al. Analysis of SARS-CoV-2 mutations in the United States suggests presence of four substrains and novel variants. Commun Biol 4, 228 (2021).

Transmission Characteristics

What causes a virus to change?

Effectiveness of Public Health Measures

  • Ayouni I, Maatoug J, Dhouib W, Zammit N, Fredj SB, Ghammam R, Ghannem H. Effective public health measures to mitigate the spread of COVID-19: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2021 May 29;21(1):1015. doi: 10.1186/s12889-021-11111-1. PMID: 34051769; PMCID: PMC8164261.

  • Burns J, Movsisyan A, Stratil JM, Coenen M, Emmert-Fees KM, Geffert K, Hoffmann S, Horstick O, Laxy M, Pfadenhauer LM, von Philipsborn P, Sell K, Voss S, Rehfuess E. Travel-related control measures to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a rapid review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Oct 5;10:CD013717. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013717. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2021 Mar 25;3:CD013717. PMID: 33502002.

  • Iezadi S, Gholipour K, Azami-Aghdash S, Ghiasi A, Rezapour A, Pourasghari H, Pashazadeh F. Effectiveness of non-pharmaceutical public health interventions against COVID-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. PLoS One. 2021 Nov 23;16(11):e0260371. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0260371. PMID: 34813628; PMCID: PMC8610259.

  • Islam N, Sharp SJ, Chowell G, Shabnam S, Kawachi I, Lacey B, Massaro JM, D'Agostino RB Sr, White M. Physical distancing interventions and incidence of coronavirus disease 2019: natural experiment in 149 countries. BMJ. 2020 Jul 15;370:m2743. doi: 10.1136/bmj.m2743. PMID: 32669358; PMCID: PMC7360923.

  • Krishnaratne S, Pfadenhauer LM, Coenen M, Geffert K, Jung-Sievers C, Klinger C, Kratzer S, Littlecott H, Movsisyan A, Rabe JE, Rehfuess E, Sell K, Strahwald B, Stratil JM, Voss S, Wabnitz K, Burns J. Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Dec 17;12:CD013812. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013812. PMID: 33331665.

  • Nussbaumer-Streit B, Mayr V, Dobrescu AI, Chapman A, Persad E, Klerings I, Wagner G, Siebert U, Christof C, Zachariah C, Gartlehner G. Quarantine alone or in combination with other public health measures to control COVID-19: a rapid review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Apr 8;4(4):CD013574. doi: 10.1002/14651858.CD013574. Update in: Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2020 Sep 15;9:CD013574. PMID: 32267544; PMCID: PMC7141753.

  • Regmi K, Lwin CM. Factors Associated with the Implementation of Non-Pharmaceutical Interventions for Reducing Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19): A Systematic Review. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2021 Apr 17;18(8):4274. doi: 10.3390/ijerph18084274. PMID: 33920613; PMCID: PMC8072790.

  • Talic S, Shah S, Wild H, Gasevic D, Maharaj A, Ademi Z, Li X, Xu W, Mesa-Eguiagaray I, Rostron J, Theodoratou E, Zhang X, Motee A, Liew D, Ilic D. Effectiveness of public health measures in reducing the incidence of covid-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and covid-19 mortality: systematic review and meta-analysis. BMJ. 2021 Nov 17;375:e068302. doi: 10.1136/bmj-2021-068302. Erratum in: BMJ. 2021 Dec 3;375:n2997. PMID: 34789505.

  • Teslya A, Pham TM, Godijk NG, Kretzschmar ME, Bootsma MCJ, Rozhnova G. Impact of self-imposed prevention measures and short-term government-imposed social distancing on mitigating and delaying a COVID-19 epidemic: A modelling study. PLoS Med. 2020 Jul 21;17(7):e1003166. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1003166. Erratum in: PLoS Med. 2020 Dec 4;17(12):e1003499. PMID: 32692736; PMCID: PMC7373263.

Evaluation of Emergency Response (sample evaluations or guidance documents)

Grey Literature


Indigenous or First Nations Resources

Provincial/Territorial Links

International Sources

Indoor Air and Airborn or Droplet Transmission

Grey Literature

Infection Prevention & Control

  •  demand for masks / shortage of masks

     disposing of masks/ garbage 

Grey Literature


Long Term Health Effects of COVID-19

Shah W., Hillman, T., Playford, E. D., & Hishmeh, L. (2021) Managing the long term effects of covid-19: summary of NICE, SIGN, and RCGP rapid guideline BMJ 2021; 372 :n136

PHO. Long-Term Sequelae and COVID-19 – What We Know So Far. [October 7, 2020]

Long-Term Effects of COVID-19. [CDC]

UptoDate has a section on recovery and long-term sequelae


Rapid Review: Chronic Symptoms of COVID-19 [Alberta Health Services. November 30, 2020].

Living with COVID19- Themed review

Newfoundland & Labrador Centre for Applied Health Research. Medium-term and Long-term Health Impacts of COVID-19 on Infection Survivors [Sept. 23, )2020]

What we know about Long-term effects of COVID-19 [WHO September 9, 2020].

NSW Covid-19 Critical Intelligence Unit. Medium- and long-term health sequelae of COVID-19 evidence check (August 26th)

Long-Term Care Sites


Novel Coronavirus Outbreak

  1. ​Bassetti, M., Vena, A., & Giacobbe, D. R. (2020). The novel Chinese coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infections: Challenges for fighting the storm. European journal of clinical investigation, e13209-e13209. doi:10.1111/eci.13209
  2. Battegay, M., Kuehl, R., Tschudin-Sutter, S., Hirsch, H. H., Widmer, A. F., & Neher, R. A. (2020). 2019-novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): estimating the case fatality rate - a word of caution. Swiss medical weekly, 150, w20203-w20203. doi:10.4414/smw.2020.20203
  3. Benvenuto, D., Giovanetti, M., Ciccozzi, A., Spoto, S., Angeletti, S., & Ciccozzi, M. (2020). The 2019-new coronavirus epidemic: Evidence for virus evolution. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25688. doi:10.1002/jmv.25688
  4. Biscayart, C., Angeleri, P., Lloveras, S., Chaves, T. d. S. S., Schlagenhauf, P., & Rodríguez-Morales, A. J. (2020). The next big threat to global health? 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV): What advice can we give to travellers? - Interim recommendations January 2020, from the Latin-American society for Travel Medicine (SLAMVI). Travel medicine and infectious disease, 101567-101567. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101567
  5. Carlos, W. G., Dela Cruz, C. S., Cao, B., Pasnick, S., & Jamil, S. (2020). Novel Wuhan (2019-nCoV) Coronavirus. American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 10.1164/rccm.2014P1167. doi:10.1164/rccm.2014P7
  6. Ceraolo, C., & Giorgi, F. M. (2020). Genomic variance of the 2019-nCoV coronavirus. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25700. doi:10.1002/jmv.25700
  7. Chan, J. F.-W., Kok, K.-H., Zhu, Z., Chu, H., To, K. K.-W., Yuan, S., & Yuen, K.-Y. (2020). Genomic characterization of the 2019 novel human-pathogenic coronavirus isolated from a patient with atypical pneumonia after visiting Wuhan. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 221-236. doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1719902
  8. Chen, J. (2020). Pathogenicity and Transmissibility of 2019-nCoV-A Quick Overview and Comparison with Other Emerging Viruses. Microbes and infection, S1286-4579(1220)30026-30025. doi:10.1016/j.micinf.2020.01.004
  9. Chen, L., Liu, H. G., Liu, W., Liu, J., Liu, K., Shang, J., . . . Wei, S. (2020). Analysis of clinical features of 29 patients with 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 43(0), E005-E005. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0005
  10. Chen, L., Liu, W., Zhang, Q., Xu, K., Ye, G., Wu, W., . . . Liu, Y. (2020). RNA based mNGS approach identifies a novel human coronavirus from two individual pneumonia cases in 2019 Wuhan outbreak. Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1), 313-319. doi:10.1080/22221751.2020.1725399
  11. Chen, N., Zhou, M., Dong, X., Qu, J., Gong, F., Han, Y., . . . Zhang, L. (2020). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of 99 cases of 2019 novel coronavirus pneumonia in Wuhan, China: a descriptive study. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30211-30217. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30211-7
  12. Chen, Y., Liu, Q., & Guo, D. (2020). Emerging coronaviruses: Genome structure, replication, and pathogenesis. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25681. doi:10.1002/jmv.25681
  13. Chen, Z.-M., Fu, J.-F., Shu, Q., Chen, Y.-H., Hua, C.-Z., Li, F.-B., . . . Zhang, Y.-Y. (2020). Diagnosis and treatment recommendations for pediatric respiratory infection caused by the 2019 novel coronavirus. World journal of pediatrics : WJP, 10.1007/s12519-12020-00345-12515. doi:10.1007/s12519-020-00345-5
  14. Chu, D. K. W., Pan, Y., Cheng, S. M. S., Hui, K. P. Y., Krishnan, P., Liu, Y., . . . Poon, L. L. M. (2020). Molecular Diagnosis of a Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Causing an Outbreak of Pneumonia. Clinical chemistry, hvaa029. doi:10.1093/clinchem/hvaa029
  15. Chung, M., Bernheim, A., Mei, X., Zhang, N., Huang, M., Zeng, X., . . . Shan, H. (2020). CT Imaging Features of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Radiology, 200230-200230. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200230
  16. Corman, V. M., Landt, O., Kaiser, M., Molenkamp, R., Meijer, A., Chu, D. K., . . . Drosten, C. (2020). Detection of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) by real-time RT-PCR. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(3), 2000045. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2000045
  17. Dennis Lo, Y. M., & Chiu, R. W. K. (2020). Racing towards the development of diagnostics for a novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Clinical chemistry, hvaa038. doi:10.1093/clinchem/hvaa038
  18. Duarte, R., Furtado, I., Sousa, L., & Carvalho, C. F. A. (2020). The 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV): Novel Virus, Old Challenges. Acta medica portuguesa, 10.20344/amp.13547. doi:10.20344/amp.13547
  19. Eurosurveillance Editorial, T. (2020). Note from the editors: novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(3), 2001231. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.3.2001231
  20. Eurosurveillance Editorial, T. (2020). Note from the editors: World Health Organization declares novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) sixth public health emergency of international concern. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.2825.2805.200131e. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.5.200131e
  21. Fang, Y., Zhang, H., Xu, Y., Xie, J., Pang, P., & Ji, W. (2020). CT Manifestations of Two Cases of 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia. Radiology, 200280-200280. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200280
  22. Favre, G., Pomar, L., Musso, D., & Baud, D. (2020). 2019-nCoV epidemic: what about pregnancies? Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30311-30311. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30311-1
  23. Gao, Z. C. (2020). Efficient management of novel coronavirus pneumonia by efficient prevention and control in scientific manner. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 43(0), E001-E001. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0001
  24. Giovanetti, M., Benvenuto, D., Angeletti, S., & Ciccozzi, M. (2020). The first two cases of 2019-nCoV in Italy: where they come from? Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25699. doi:10.1002/jmv.25699
  25. Gralinski, L. E., & Menachery, V. D. (2020). Return of the Coronavirus: 2019-nCoV. Viruses, 12(2), E135. doi:10.3390/v12020135
  26. Group of Interventional Respiratory Medicine, C. T. S. (2020). Expert consensus for bronchoscopy during the epidemic of 2019 Novel Coronavirus infection (Trial version). Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 43(0), E006-E006. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0006
  27. Habibzadeh, P., & Stoneman, E. K. (2020). The Novel Coronavirus: A Bird's Eye View. The international journal of occupational and environmental medicine, 11(2), 65-71. doi:10.15171/ijoem.2020.1921
  28. Holshue, M. L., DeBolt, C., Lindquist, S., Lofy, K. H., Wiesman, J., Bruce, H., . . . Washington State -nCo, V. C. I. T. (2020). First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus in the United States. The New England journal of medicine, 10.1056/NEJMoa2001191. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa2001191
  29. Horton, R. (2020). Offline: 2019-nCoV outbreak-early lessons. Lancet (London, England), 395(10221), 322-322. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30212-9
  30. Horton, R. (2020). Offline: 2019-nCoV-"A desperate plea". Lancet (London, England), 395(10222), 400-400. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30299-3
  31. Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., . . . Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30183-30185. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30183-5
  32. Hui, D. S., I Azhar, E., Madani, T. A., Ntoumi, F., Kock, R., Dar, O., . . . Petersen, E. (2020). The continuing 2019-nCoV epidemic threat of novel coronaviruses to global health - The latest 2019 novel coronavirus outbreak in Wuhan, China. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, 91, 264-266. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.009
  33. Ji, J. S. (2020). Origins of MERS-CoV, and lessons for 2019-nCoV. The Lancet. Planetary health, S2542-5196(2520)30032-30032. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30032-2
  34. Ji, W., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Zai, J., & Li, X. (2020). Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25682. doi:10.1002/jmv.25682
  35. Jiang, S., Xia, S., Ying, T., & Lu, L. (2020). A novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) causing pneumonia-associated respiratory syndrome. Cellular & molecular immunology, 10.1038/s41423-41020-40372-41424. doi:10.1038/s41423-020-0372-4
  36. Jin, Y.-H., Cai, L., Cheng, Z.-S., Cheng, H., Deng, T., Fan, Y.-P., . . . Health, C. (2020). A rapid advice guideline for the diagnosis and treatment of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) infected pneumonia (standard version). Military Medical Research, 7(1), 4-4. doi:10.1186/s40779-020-0233-6
  37. Kampf, G., Todt, D., Pfaender, S., & Steinmann, E. (2020). Persistence of coronaviruses on inanimate surfaces and its inactivation with biocidal agents. The Journal of hospital infection, S0195-6701(0120)30046-30043. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2020.01.022
  38. Kanne, J. P. (2020). Chest CT Findings in 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infections from Wuhan, China: Key Points for the Radiologist. Radiology, 200241-200241. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200241
  39. Ki, M., & nCoV, T. F. F. (2020). Epidemiologic characteristics of early cases with 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) disease in Republic of Korea. Epidemiology and health, e2020007-e2020007. doi:10.4178/epih.e2020007
  40. Kim, J. Y., Choe, P. G., Oh, Y., Oh, K. J., Kim, J., Park, S. J., . . . Oh, M. D. (2020). The First Case of 2019 Novel Coronavirus Pneumonia Imported into Korea from Wuhan, China: Implication for Infection Prevention and Control Measures. Journal of Korean medical science, 35(5), e61-e61. doi:10.3346/jkms.2020.35.e61
  41. Kock, R. A., Karesh, W. B., Veas, F., Velavan, T. P., Simons, D., Mboera, L. E. G., . . . Zumla, A. (2020). 2019-nCoV in context: lessons learned? The Lancet. Planetary health, S2542-5196(2520)30035-30038. doi:10.1016/S2542-5196(20)30035-8
  42. Lee, P.-I., & Hsueh, P.-R. (2020). Emerging threats from zoonotic coronaviruses-from SARS and MERS to 2019-nCoV. Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi, S1684-1182(1620)30011-30016. doi:10.1016/j.jmii.2020.02.001
  43. Lei, J., Li, J., Li, X., & Qi, X. (2020). CT Imaging of the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia. Radiology, 200236-200236. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200236
  44. Li, H., Wang, Y. M., Xu, J. Y., & Cao, B. (2020). Potential antiviral therapeutics for 2019 Novel Coronavirus. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 43(0), E002-E002. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0002
  45. Li, X., Wang, W., Zhao, X., Zai, J., Zhao, Q., Li, Y., & Chaillon, A. (2020). Transmission dynamics and evolutionary history of 2019-nCoV. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25701. doi:10.1002/jmv.25701
  46. Li, X., Zai, J., Wang, X., & Li, Y. (2020). Potential of large 'first generation' human-to-human transmission of 2019-nCoV. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25693. doi:10.1002/jmv.25693
  47. Lin, L., & Li, T. S. (2020). Interpretation of "Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection by the National Health Commission (Trial Version 5)". Zhonghua yi xue za zhi, 100(0), E001-E001. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0376-2491.2020.0001
  48. Liu, P., & Tan, X.-Z. (2020). 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia. Radiology, 200257-200257. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200257
  49. Liu, W., Morse, J. S., Lalonde, T., & Xu, S. (2020). Learning from the Past: Possible Urgent Prevention and Treatment Options for Severe Acute Respiratory Infections Caused by 2019-nCoV. Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 10.1002/cbic.202000047. doi:10.1002/cbic.202000047
  50. Lu, C.-W., Liu, X.-F., & Jia, Z.-F. (2020). 2019-nCoV transmission through the ocular surface must not be ignored. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30313-30315. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30313-5
  51. Lu, H. (2020). Drug treatment options for the 2019-new coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Bioscience trends, 10.5582/bst.2020.01020. doi:10.5582/bst.2020.01020
  52. Lu, H., Stratton, C. W., & Tang, Y.-W. (2020). Outbreak of Pneumonia of Unknown Etiology in Wuhan China: the Mystery and the Miracle. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25678. doi:10.1002/jmv.25678
  53. Lu, R., Zhao, X., Li, J., Niu, P., Yang, B., Wu, H., . . . Tan, W. (2020). Genomic characterisation and epidemiology of 2019 novel coronavirus: implications for virus origins and receptor binding. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30251-30258. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30251-8
  54. Malik, Y. S., Sircar, S., Bhat, S., Sharun, K., Dhama, K., Dadar, M., . . . Chaicumpa, W. (2020). Emerging novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) - Current scenario, evolutionary perspective based on genome analysis and recent developments. The veterinary quarterly, 1-12. doi:10.1080/01652176.2020.1727993
  55. Mowbray, H. (2020). In Beijing, coronavirus 2019-nCoV has created a siege mentality. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 368, m516-m516. doi:10.1136/bmj.m516
  56. nCo, V. N. I. R. S. T. (2020). 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease, Australia: Epidemiology Report 1 (Reporting week 26 January - 1 February 2020). Communicable diseases intelligence (2018), 44, 10.33321/cdi.32019.33344.33313. doi:10.33321/cdi.2020.44.13
  57. Nishiura, H., Jung, S.-M., Linton, N. M., Kinoshita, R., Yang, Y., Hayashi, K., . . . Akhmetzhanov, A. R. (2020). The Extent of Transmission of Novel Coronavirus in Wuhan, China, 2020. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2), E330. doi:10.3390/jcm9020330
  58. Nishiura, H., Kobayashi, T., Yang, Y., Hayashi, K., Miyama, T., Kinoshita, R., . . . Akhmetzhanov, A. R. (2020). The Rate of Underascertainment of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Infection: Estimation Using Japanese Passengers Data on Evacuation Flights. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2), E419. doi:10.3390/jcm9020419
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  61. Parry, J. (2020). Wuhan: Britons to be evacuated as scientists estimate 44 000 cases of 2019-nCOV in the city. BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 368, m351-m351. doi:10.1136/bmj.m351
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  63. Phan, T. (2020). Novel coronavirus: From discovery to clinical diagnostics. Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 79, 104211-104211. doi:10.1016/j.meegid.2020.104211
  64. Pullano, G., Pinotti, F., Valdano, E., Boëlle, P.-Y., Poletto, C., & Colizza, V. (2020). Novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) early-stage importation risk to Europe, January 2020. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(4), 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.2825.2804.2000057. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000057
  65. Rahman Qureshi, U. U., Saleem, S., Khan, A., Afzal, M. S., Ali, M. S., & Ahmed, H. (2020). Outbreak of novel Corona Virus (2019-nCoV); implications for travelers to Pakistan? Travel medicine and infectious disease, 101571-101571. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101571
  66. Richardson, P., Griffin, I., Tucker, C., Smith, D., Oechsle, O., Phelan, A., & Stebbing, J. (2020). Baricitinib as potential treatment for 2019-nCoV acute respiratory disease. Lancet (London, England), S0140-6736(0120)30304-30304. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30304-4
  67. Riou, J., & Althaus, C. L. (2020). Pattern of early human-to-human transmission of Wuhan 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV), December 2019 to January 2020. Euro surveillance : bulletin Europeen sur les maladies transmissibles = European communicable disease bulletin, 25(4), 10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.2825.2804.2000058. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.4.2000058
  68. Rothe, C., Schunk, M., Sothmann, P., Bretzel, G., Froeschl, G., Wallrauch, C., . . . Hoelscher, M. (2020). Transmission of 2019-nCoV Infection from an Asymptomatic Contact in Germany. The New England journal of medicine, 10.1056/NEJMc2001468. doi:10.1056/NEJMc2001468
  69. Rubin, E. J., Baden, L. R., Morrissey, S., & Campion, E. W. (2020). Medical Journals and the 2019-nCoV Outbreak. The New England journal of medicine, 10.1056/NEJMe2001329. doi:10.1056/NEJMe2001329
  70. Ryu, S., & Chun, B. C. (2020). Epidemiological characteristics of 2019 novel coronavirus: an interim review. Epidemiology and health, e2020006-e2020006. doi:10.4178/epih.e2020006
  71. Shen, K., Yang, Y., Wang, T., Zhao, D., Jiang, Y., Jin, R., . . . Global Pediatric Pulmonology, A. (2020). Diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of 2019 novel coronavirus infection in children: experts' consensus statement. World journal of pediatrics : WJP, 10.1007/s12519-12020-00343-12517. doi:10.1007/s12519-020-00343-7
  72. Shi, H., Han, X., & Zheng, C. (2020). Evolution of CT Manifestations in a Patient Recovered from 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. Radiology, 200269-200269. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200269
  73. Shigemura, J., Ursano, R. J., Morganstein, J. C., Kurosawa, M., & Benedek, D. M. (2020). Public responses to the novel 2019 coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Japan: mental health consequences and target populations. Psychiatry and clinical neurosciences, 10.1111/pcn.12988. doi:10.1111/pcn.12988
  74. Song, F., Shi, N., Shan, F., Zhang, Z., Shen, J., Lu, H., . . . Shi, Y. (2020). Emerging Coronavirus 2019-nCoV Pneumonia. Radiology, 200274-200274. doi:10.1148/radiol.2020200274
  75. The, L. (2020). Emerging understandings of 2019-nCoV. Lancet (London, England), 395(10221), 311-311. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30186-0
  76. Tian, H. Y. (2020). 2019-nCoV: new challenges from coronavirus. Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine], 54(0), E001-E001. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.0253-9624.2020.0001
  77. Tuite, A. R., & Fisman, D. N. (2020). Reporting, Epidemic Growth, and Reproduction Numbers for the 2019 Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Epidemic. Annals of internal medicine, 10.7326/M7320-0358. doi:10.7326/M20-0358
  78. Wan, Y., Shang, J., Graham, R., Baric, R. S., & Li, F. (2020). Receptor recognition by novel coronavirus from Wuhan: An analysis based on decade-long structural studies of SARS. Journal of virology, JVI.00127-00120. doi:10.1128/JVI.00127-20
  79. Wang, D., Hu, B., Hu, C., Zhu, F., Liu, X., Zhang, J., . . . Peng, Z. (2020). Clinical Characteristics of 138 Hospitalized Patients With 2019 Novel Coronavirus-Infected Pneumonia in Wuhan, China. JAMA, 10.1001/jama.2020.1585. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.1585
  80. Wang, F.-S., & Zhang, C. (2020). What to do next to control the 2019-nCoV epidemic? Lancet (London, England), 395(10222), 391-393. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30300-7
  81. Wang, M., Cao, R., Zhang, L., Yang, X., Liu, J., Xu, M., . . . Xiao, G. (2020). Remdesivir and chloroquine effectively inhibit the recently emerged novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in vitro. Cell research, 10.1038/s41422-41020-40282-41420. doi:10.1038/s41422-020-0282-0
  82. Wang, W., Tang, J., & Wei, F. (2020). Updated understanding of the outbreak of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in Wuhan, China. Journal of medical virology, 10.1002/jmv.25689. doi:10.1002/jmv.25689
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  84. Wilson, M. E. (2020). What goes on board aircraft? Passengers include Aedes, Anopheles, 2019-nCoV, dengue, Salmonella, Zika, et al. Travel medicine and infectious disease, 101572-101572. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101572
  85. Wilson, M. E., & Chen, L. H. (2020). Travelers Give Wings to Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). Journal of travel medicine, taaa015. doi:10.1093/jtm/taaa015
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  97. Zhao, J. P., Hu, Y., Du, R. H., Chen, Z. S., Jin, Y., Zhou, M., . . . Cao, B. (2020). Expert consensus on the use of corticosteroid in patients with 2019-nCoV pneumonia. Zhonghua jie he he hu xi za zhi = Zhonghua jiehe he huxi zazhi = Chinese journal of tuberculosis and respiratory diseases, 43(0), E007-E007. doi:10.3760/cma.j.issn.1001-0939.2020.0007
  98. Zhao, S., Lin, Q., Ran, J., Musa, S. S., Yang, G., Wang, W., . . . Wang, M. H. (2020). Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. International journal of infectious diseases : IJID : official publication of the International Society for Infectious Diseases, S1201-9712(1220)30053-30059. doi:10.1016/j.ijid.2020.01.050
  99. Zhao, S., Musa, S. S., Lin, Q., Ran, J., Yang, G., Wang, W., . . . Wang, M. H. (2020). Estimating the Unreported Number of Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Cases in China in the First Half of January 2020: A Data-Driven Modelling Analysis of the Early Outbreak. Journal of clinical medicine, 9(2), E388. doi:10.3390/jcm9020388
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Personal Protective Equipment (PPE)

Grey Literature


Published Articles or Pre-prints

1. Bae, S., Kim, M. C., Kim, J. Y., Cha, H. H., Lim, J. S., Jung, J., . . . Kim, S. H. (2020). Effectiveness of Surgical and Cotton Masks in Blocking SARS-CoV-2: A Controlled Comparison in 4 Patients. Ann Intern Med. doi:10.7326/m20-1342

2. Bartoszko, J. J., Farooqi, M. A. M., Alhazzani, W., & Loeb, M. (2020). Medical Masks vs N95 Respirators for Preventing COVID-19 in Health Care Workers A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Randomized Trials. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. doi:10.1111/irv.12745

3. Brown, C. K. (2019). Respiratory Protection Against Emerging Infectious Diseases: Face Masks, Respirators, and Tools for Choosing Between Them. Health Secur, 17(2), 133-139. doi:10.1089/hs.2018.0056

4. Chiodini, J. (2020). Maps, masks and media - Traveller and practitioner resources for 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) acute respiratory virus. Travel Med Infect Dis, 33, 101574. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2020.101574

5. Chughtai, A. A., Seale, H., Islam, M. S., Owais, M., & Macintyre, C. R. (2020). Policies on the use of respiratory protection for hospital health workers to protect from coronavirus disease (COVID-19). Int J Nurs Stud, 105, 103567. doi:10.1016/j.ijnurstu.2020.103567

6. Chughtai, A. A., Seale, H., Rawlinson, W. D., Kunasekaran, M., & Macintyre, C. R. (2020). Selection and Use of Respiratory Protection by Healthcare Workers to Protect from Infectious Diseases in Hospital Settings. Ann Work Expo Health. doi:10.1093/annweh/wxaa020

7. Chughtai, A. A., Stelzer-Braid, S., Rawlinson, W., Pontivivo, G., Wang, Q., Pan, Y., . . . MacIntyre, C. R. (2019). Contamination by respiratory viruses on outer surface of medical masks used by hospital healthcare workers. BMC Infect Dis, 19(1), 491. doi:10.1186/s12879-019-4109-x

8. Desai, A. N., & Mehrotra, P. (2020). Medical Masks. Jama. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.2331

9. Feng, S., Shen, C., Xia, N., Song, W., Fan, M., & Cowling, B. J. (2020). Rational use of face masks in the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Respir Med. doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30134-x

10. Glatt, A. E. (2020). Health care worker use of N95 respirators vs medical masks did not differ for workplace-acquired influenza. Ann Intern Med, 172(2), Jc7. doi:10.7326/acpj202001210-007

11. Howard, R. A., Lathrop, G. W., & Powell, N. (2020). Sterile field contamination from powered air-purifying respirators (PAPRs) versus contamination from surgical masks. Am J Infect Control, 48(2), 153-156. doi:10.1016/j.ajic.2019.08.009

12. Huang, W., & Morawska, L. (2019). Face masks could raise pollution risks. Nature, 574(7776), 29-30. doi:10.1038/d41586-019-02938-1

13. Jacobs, Z. G. (2020). The Masks We Wear. J Gen Intern Med, 35(3), 933-934. doi:10.1007/s11606-019-05211-3

14. Jeong, S. B., Ko, H. S., Seo, S. C., & Jung, J. H. (2019). Evaluation of filtration characteristics and microbial recovery rates of commercial filtering facepiece respirators against airborne bacterial particles. Sci Total Environ, 682, 729-736. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.153

15. Jones, L., Black, S. R., Arnold, L. E., & Fristad, M. A. (2019). Not All Masks Are Created Equal: Masking Success in Clinical Trials of Children and Adolescents. J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol, 48(sup1), S227-s233. doi:10.1080/15374416.2017.1342547

16. Kirby, T. (2020). Australian Government releases face masks to protect against coronavirus. Lancet Respir Med, 8(3), 239. doi:10.1016/s2213-2600(20)30064-3

17. Lee, E. G., & Ceballos, D. M. (2020). Adoption of Exposure Assessment Tools to Assist in Providing Respiratory Protection Recommendations. Ann Work Expo Health. doi:10.1093/annweh/wxaa023

18. Lepelletier, D., Keita-Perse, O., Parneix, P., Baron, R., Glele, L. S. A., & Grandbastien, B. (2019). Respiratory protective equipment at work: good practices for filtering facepiece (FFP) mask. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis, 38(11), 2193-2195. doi:10.1007/s10096-019-03642-8

19. Liu, X., & Zhang, S. (2020). COVID-19: Face masks and human-to-human transmission. Influenza Other Respir Viruses. doi:10.1111/irv.12740

20. Liu, Z., Yu, D., Ge, Y., Wang, L., Zhang, J., Li, H., . . . Zhai, Z. (2019). Understanding the factors involved in determining the bioburdens of surgical masks. Ann Transl Med, 7(23), 754. doi:10.21037/atm.2019.11.91

21. Long, Y., Hu, T., Liu, L., Chen, R., Guo, Q., Yang, L., . . . Du, L. (2020). Effectiveness of N95 respirators versus surgical masks against influenza: A systematic review and meta-analysis. J Evid Based Med. doi:10.1111/jebm.12381

22. Mahase, E. (2020). Novel coronavirus: Australian GPs raise concerns about shortage of face masks. Bmj, 368, m477. doi:10.1136/bmj.m477

23. McDiarmid, M., Harrison, R., & Nicas, M. (2020). N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks in Outpatient Settings. Jama, 323(8), 789. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.20905

24. Nathan, N. (2020). Waste Not, Want Not: The Re-Usability of N95 Masks. Anesth Analg. doi:10.1213/ane.0000000000004843

25. Nemeth, C., Laufersweiler, D., Polander, E., Orvis, C., Harnish, D., Morgan, S. E., . . . Heimbuch, B. (2020). Preparing for an Influenza Pandemic: Hospital Acceptance Study of Filtering Facepiece Respirator Decontamination Using Ultraviolet Germicidal Irradiation. J Patient Saf. doi:10.1097/pts.0000000000000600

26. Pacitto, A., Amato, F., Salmatonidis, A., Moreno, T., Alastuey, A., Reche, C., . . . Querol, X. (2019). Effectiveness of commercial face masks to reduce personal PM exposure. Sci Total Environ, 650(Pt 1), 1582-1590. doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.09.109

27. Patel, A., Lee, L., Pillai, S. K., Valderrama, A. L., Delaney, L. J., & Radonovich, L. (2019). Approach to Prioritizing Respiratory Protection When Demand Exceeds Supplies During an Influenza Pandemic: A Call to Action. Health Secur, 17(2), 152-155. doi:10.1089/hs.2019.0027

28. Radonovich, L. J., Jr., Simberkoff, M. S., Bessesen, M. T., Brown, A. C., Cummings, D. A. T., Gaydos, C. A., . . . Perl, T. M. (2019). N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks for Preventing Influenza Among Health Care Personnel: A Randomized Clinical Trial. Jama, 322(9), 824-833. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.11645

29. Radonovich, L. J., Jr., Simberkoff, M. S., & Perl, T. M. (2020). N95 Respirators vs Medical Masks in Outpatient Settings-Reply. Jama, 323(8), 789-790. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.20908

30. Rogers, B., Buckheit, K., & Ostendorf, J. (2019). Development of Competencies for Respiratory Protection for Health Care Workers. Workplace Health Saf, 67(2), 56-67. doi:10.1177/2165079918798857

31. Suen, L. K. P., Guo, Y. P., Ho, S. S. K., Au-Yeung, C. H., & Lam, S. C. (2020). Comparing mask fit and usability of traditional and nanofibre N95 filtering facepiece respirators before and after nursing procedures. J Hosp Infect, 104(3), 336-343. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2019.09.014

32. Sun, C., Thelen, C., Sancho Sanz, I., & Wittmann, A. (2020). Evaluation of a New Workplace Protection Factor-Measuring Method for Filtering Facepiece Respirator. Saf Health Work, 11(1), 61-70. doi:10.1016/

33. Talbot, T. R., & Babcock, H. M. (2019). Respiratory Protection of Health Care Personnel to Prevent Respiratory Viral Transmission. Jama, 322(9), 817-819. doi:10.1001/jama.2019.11644 

34. Tanne, J. H. (2020). Americans are told to wear cloth masks. Bmj, 369, m1411. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1411 

35.Verbeek JH, Rajamaki B, Ijaz S, Sauni R, Toomey E, Blackwood B, Tikka C, Ruotsalainen JH, Kilinc Balci F. Personal protective equipment for preventing highly infectious diseases due to exposure to contaminated body fluids in healthcare staff. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews 2020, Issue 4. Art. No.: CD011621. DOI: 10.1002/14651858.CD011621.pub4

36. Vuma, C. D., Manganyi, J., Wilson, K., & Rees, D. (2019). The Effect on Fit of Multiple Consecutive Donning and Doffing of N95 Filtering Facepiece Respirators. Ann Work Expo Health, 63(8), 930-936. doi:10.1093/annweh/wxz060

37. Wambier, C. G., Lee, K. C., Oliveira, P. B., Wambier, S. P. F., & Beltrame, F. L. (2019). Comment on "Surgical smoke: Risk assessment and mitigation strategies" and chemical adsorption by activated carbon N95 masks. J Am Acad Dermatol, 80(4), e79-e80. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2018.10.067

38. Wang, Q., & Yu, C. (2020). Letter to editor: Role of masks/respirator protection against 2019-novel coronavirus (COVID-19). Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol, 1-7. doi:10.1017/ice.2020.83

39. Zhang, X., Jia, N., & Wang, Z. (2019). The relationship between the filtering facepiece respirator fit and the facial anthropometric dimensions among Chinese people. Ind Health. doi:10.2486/indhealth.2019-0158

40. Zhou, Nuo-Ya; Yang, Liu; Dong, Li-Yun; Li, Yan; An, Xiang-Jie; Yang, Jing; Yang, Liu; Huang, Chang-Zheng; Tao, Juan,* Prevention and Treatment of Skin Damage Caused by Personal Protective Equipment, International Journal of Dermatology and Venereology: March 13, 2020 - Volume Latest Articles - Issue - doi: 10.1097/JD9.0000000000000085


41. Zhu, J., He, X., Guffey, S., Wang, L., Wang, H., & Cheng, J. (2020). Performance Comparison of N95 and P100 Filtering Facepiece Respirators with Presence of Artificial Leakage. Ann Work Expo Health, 64(2), 202-216. doi:10.1093/annweh/wxz086

Re-opening Cities

Grey Literature

Reopening - Workplace or Industry Guidance Documents

SARS-CoV-2 Variant (VOC 202012/01)


European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. Rapid increase of a SARS-CoV-2 variant with multiple

spike protein mutations observed in the United Kingdom – 20 December 2020. ECDC: Stockholm; 2020

Public Health England:

NERVTAG (UK) Meeting Minutes:

  • New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group (NERVTAG) December 18th meeting:

  • New and Emerging Respiratory Virus Threats Advisory Group (NERVTAG)  December 21th meeting:

BMJ Articles:

  • Covid-19: New coronavirus variant is identified in UK.

BMJ 2020; 371 doi: (Published 16 December 2020)Cite this as: BMJ 2020;371:m4857


Implications of the Emerging SARS-CoV-2 Variant VOC 202012/01

Convalescent plasma & viral evolution:

  • Persistent SARS-CoV-2 infection and viral evolution tracked in an immunocompromised patient

New England Journal of Medicine

  • Emergence of a Highly Fit SARS-CoV-2 Variant December 16, 2020 DOI: 10.1056/NEJMcibr2032888

Vaccine development and variants (Dated but interesting articles):

  • A SARS-CoV-2 vaccine candidate would likely match all currently circulating variants

PNAS September 22, 2020 117 (38) 23652-23662; first published August 31, 2020;

  •  Low genetic diversity may be an Achilles heel of SARS-CoV-2 [Commentary]

PNAS October 6, 2020 117 (40) 24614-24616; first published September 21, 2020;

School Re-opening

Note: This list was compiled June 1, 2021. Please email to obtain an update.


Grey Literature

Metrics for Reopening

Published Literature (as of June 1, 2021)

  1. Abrams, E. M., Shaker, M., & Greenhawt, M. (2021). School Attendance, Asthma Risk, and COVID-19 in Children. J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract. doi:10.1016/j.jaip.2021.03.006 
  2. Akiba, D. (2020). Reopening America's Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Protecting Asian Students From Stigma and Discrimination. Front Sociol. doi:10.3389/fsoc.2020.588936
  3. Anastassopoulou, C., Spanakis, N., & Tsakris, A. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 transmission, the ambiguous role of children and considerations for the reopening of schools in the fall. Future Microbiol. doi:10.2217/fmb-2020-0195
  4. Asgary, A., Cojocaru, M. G., Najafabadi, M. M., & Wu, J. (2021). Simulating preventative testing of SARS-CoV-2 in schools: policy implications. BMC Public Health. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-10153-1
  5. Askarian, M., Taghrir, M. H., & Akbarialiabad, H. (2021). How should the high-risk children go back to school following school reopening in the COVID-19 pandemic? EXCLI J. doi:10.17179/excli2021-3507
  6. Bansal, U., Ghate, S., Bhattacharya, P., Thapar, R. K., & Gupta, P. (2020). Parental Perspectives on Remote Learning and School Reopening. Indian Pediatr. 
  7. Baron, E. J., Goldstein, E. G., & Wallace, C. T. (2020). Suffering in silence: How COVID-19 school closures inhibit the reporting of child maltreatment. J Public Econ. doi:10.1016/j.jpubeco.2020.104258
  8. Benzian, H., Johnston, M., Stauf, N., & Niederman, R. (2021). Presenting or Spinning Facts? Deconstructing the U.S. Centers for Disease Control Statement on the Importance of Reopening Schools Under COVID-19. Front Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.645229
  9. Bonell, C., Melendez-Torres, G. J., Viner, R. M., Rogers, M. B., Whitworth, M., Rutter, H., . . . Patton, G. (2020). An evidence-based theory of change for reducing SARS-CoV-2 transmission in reopened schools. Health Place. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2020.102398
  10. Borkowski, A., Ortiz Correa, J. S., Bundy, D. A. P., Burbano, C., Hayashi, C., Lloyd-Evans, E., . . . Reuge, N. (2021). COVID-19: Missing More than a Classroom. The Impact of School Closures on Children's Nutrition. Innocenti Working Paper 2021-01. 
  11. Bosslet, G. T., Pollak, M., Jang, J. H., Roll, R., Sperling, M., & Khan, B. (2021). The effect of in-person primary and secondary school instruction on county-level SARS-CoV-2 spread in Indiana. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab306
  12. Bracis, C., Burns, E., Moore, M., Swan, D., Reeves, D. B., Schiffer, J. T., & Dimitrov, D. (2021). Widespread testing, case isolation and contact tracing may allow safe school reopening with continued moderate physical distancing: A modeling analysis of King County, WA data. Infect Dis Model. doi:10.1016/j.idm.2020.11.003
  13. Brandenburg, J. E., Holman, L. K., Apkon, S. D., Houtrow, A. J., Rinaldi, R., & Sholas, M. G. (2020). School reopening during COVID-19 pandemic: Considering students with disabilities. J Pediatr Rehabil Med. doi:10.3233/PRM-200789
  14. Burns, J. (2020). Measures implemented in the school setting to contain the COVID-19 pandemic: a scoping review. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD013812
  15. Cen, X., Sun, D., Rong, M., Fekete, G., Baker, J. S., Song, Y., & Gu, Y. (2020). The Online Education Mode and Reopening Plans for Chinese Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Mini Review. Front Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2020.566316
  16. Christakis, D. A. (2020). School Reopening-The Pandemic Issue That Is Not Getting Its Due. JAMA Pediatr. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.2068
  17. Cohen, R. M. The Fraught Debate over Reopening Schools: And the Need to Focus on Science. 44(4), 26. 
  18. Combe, L. G. (2020). Reopening Schools During COVID-19: School Nurse Ethical Conflicts and Moral Dilemmas. NASN Sch Nurse. doi:10.1177/1942602X20963522
  19. Cooper, D. M., Guay-Woodford, L., Blazar, B. R., Bowman, S., Byington, C. L., Dome, J., . . . Wright, R. J. (2020). Reopening Schools Safely: The Case for Collaboration, Constructive Disruption of Pre-Coronavirus 2019 Expectations, and Creative Solutions. J Pediatr. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.05.022
  20. Coronado, F. (2020). Estimated Resource Costs for Implementation of CDC's Recommended COVID-19 Mitigation Strategies in Pre-Kindergarten through Grade 12 Public Schools - United States, 2020-21 School Year. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6950e1
  21. Cruz, E. H. M., Maciel, J. M., Clozato, C., Serpa, M. S., Navaux, P. O. A., Meneses, E., . . . Diener, M. (2021). Simulation-based evaluation of school reopening strategies during COVID-19: A case study of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Epidemiol Infect. doi:10.1017/S0950268821001059
  22. D'Angelo, D., Sinopoli, A., Napoletano, A., Gianola, S., Castellini, G., Del Monaco, A., . . . Iannone, P. (2021). Strategies to exiting the COVID-19 lockdown for workplace and school: A scoping review. Saf Sci. doi:10.1016/j.ssci.2020.105067
  23. Dardas, L. A., Khalaf, I., Nabolsi, M., Nassar, O., & Halasa, S. (2020). Developing an Understanding of Adolescents' Knowledge, Attitudes, and Practices Toward COVID-19. J Sch Nurs. doi:10.1177/1059840520957069
  24. Di Domenico, L., Pullano, G., Sabbatini, C. E., Boelle, P.-Y., & Colizza, V. (2021). Modelling safe protocols for reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic in France. Nat Commun. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-21249-6
  25. Dibner, K. A., Schweingruber, H. A., & Christakis, D. A. (2020). Reopening K-12 Schools During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Report From the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. JAMA. doi:10.1001/jama.2020.14745
  26. Downes, K. J., Danziger-Isakov, L. A., Cousino, M. K., Green, M., Michaels, M. G., Muller, W. J., . . . Ardura, M. I. (2020). Return to School for Pediatric Solid Organ Transplant Recipients in the United States During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic: Expert Opinion on Key Considerations and Best Practices. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. doi:10.1093/jpids/piaa095
  27. Doyle, T., Kendrick, K., Troelstrup, T., Gumke, M., Edwards, J., Chapman, S., . . . Blackmore, C. (2021). COVID-19 in Primary and Secondary School Settings During the First Semester of School Reopening - Florida, August-December 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7012e2
  28. Edmunds, W. J. (2020). Finding a path to reopen schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30249-2
  29. Ehrhardt, J., Ekinci, A., Krehl, H., Meincke, M., Finci, I., Klein, J., . . . Brockmann, S. O. (2020). Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in children aged 0 to 19 years in childcare facilities and schools after their reopening in May 2020, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.36.2001587
  30. Farnell, T., Skledar Matijevic, A., & Šcukanec Schmidt, N. (2021). The Impact of COVID-19 on Higher Education: A Review of Emerging Evidence. Analytical Report. 
  31. Fong, M. W., Leung, N. H. L., Cowling, B. J., & Wu, P. (2021). Upper Respiratory Infections in Schools and Childcare Centers Reopening after COVID-19 Dismissals, Hong Kong. Emerg Infect Dis. doi:10.3201/eid2705.210277
  32. Fontenelle-Tereshchuk, D. Mental Health and the COVID-19 Crisis: The Hopes and Concerns for Children as Schools Re-Open. 52(1), 1-16. 
  33. Fricchione, M. J., Seo, J. Y., & Arwady, M. A. (2021). Data-Driven Reopening of Urban Public Education Through Chicago's Tracking of COVID-19 School Transmission. J Public Health Manag Pract. doi:10.1097/PHH.0000000000001334
  34. Garcia-Alamino, J. M., & Tobias, A. (2020). [Incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its impact on the first week of reopening schools in Catalonia]. Gac Sanit. doi:10.1016/j.gaceta.2020.09.007
  35. Ghate, S., Parekh, B. J., Thapar, R. K., Nadkarni, P. R., Sen, S., Bansal, U., . . . Gupta, P. (2020). Indian Academy of Pediatrics Guidelines on School Reopening, Remote Learning and Curriculum in and After the COVID-19 Pandemic. Indian Pediatr. 
  36. Gilbert, L. K., Strine, T. W., Szucs, L. E., Crawford, T. N., Parks, S. E., Barradas, D. T., . . . Ko, J. Y. (2020). Racial and Ethnic Differences in Parental Attitudes and Concerns About School Reopening During the COVID-19 Pandemic - United States, July 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6949a2
  37. Gillespie, D. L., Meyers, L. A., Lachmann, M., Redd, S. C., & Zenilman, J. M. (2021). The Experience of 2 Independent Schools With In-Person Learning During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Sch Health. doi:10.1111/josh.13008
  38. Gold, J. A. W., Gettings, J. R., Kimball, A., Franklin, R., Rivera, G., Morris, E., . . . Vallabhaneni, S. (2021). Clusters of SARS-CoV-2 Infection Among Elementary School Educators and Students in One School District - Georgia, December 2020-January 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7008e4
  39. Gopez, J. M. W. (2021). Cautious and gradual reopening of limited face-to-face classes in Philippine tertiary schools. J Public Health (Oxf). doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdab060
  40. Gras-Le Guen, C., Cohen, R., Rozenberg, J., Launay, E., Levy-Bruhl, D., & Delacourt, C. (2021). Reopening schools in the context of increasing COVID-19 community transmission: The French experience. Arch Pediatr. doi:10.1016/j.arcped.2021.02.001
  41. Gurdasani, D., Alwan, N. A., Greenhalgh, T., Hyde, Z., Johnson, L., McKee, M., . . . Ziauddeen, H. (2021). School reopening without robust COVID-19 mitigation risks accelerating the pandemic. Lancet. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(21)00622-X
  42. Hamoda, H. M., Chiumento, A., Alonge, O., Hamdani, S. U., Saeed, K., Wissow, L., & Rahman, A. (2021). Addressing the Consequences of the COVID-19 Lockdown for Children's Mental Health: Investing in School Mental Health Programs. Psychiatr Serv. doi:10.1176/
  43. Handebo, S., Adugna, A., Kassie, A., & Shitu, K. (2021). Determinants of COVID-19-related knowledge and preventive behaviours among students in reopened secondary schools: cross-sectional study. BMJ Open. doi:10.1136/bmjopen-2021-050189
  44. Heavey, L., Casey, G., Kelly, C., Kelly, D., & McDarby, G. (2020). No evidence of secondary transmission of COVID-19 from children attending school in Ireland, 2020. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.21.2000903
  45. Hershow, R. B., Wu, K., Lewis, N. M., Milne, A. T., Currie, D., Smith, A. R., . . . Chu, V. T. (2021). Low SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Elementary Schools - Salt Lake County, Utah, December 3, 2020-January 31, 2021. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm7012e3
  46. Jeffs, E., Lucas, N., & Walls, T. (2021). CoVID-19: Parent and caregiver concerns about reopening New Zealand schools. J Paediatr Child Health. doi:10.1111/jpc.15234
  47. Johansen, T. B., Astrup, E., Jore, S., Nilssen, H., Dahlberg, B. B., Klingenberg, C., . . . Greve-Isdahl, M. (2020). Infection prevention guidelines and considerations for paediatric risk groups when reopening primary schools during COVID-19 pandemic, Norway, April 2020. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.22.2000921
  48. Johnson, K. E., Stoddard, M., Nolan, R. P., White, D. E., Hochberg, N. S., & Chakravarty, A. (2021). In the long shadow of our best intentions: Model-based assessment of the consequences of school reopening during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0248509
  49. Kaufman, B. G., Mahendraratnam, N., Nguyen, T.-V., Benzing, L., Beliveau, J., Silcox, C., & Wong, C. A. (2021). Factors Associated with Initial Public School Reopening Plans During the US COVID-19 Pandemic: a Retrospective Study. J Gen Intern Med. doi:10.1007/s11606-020-06470-1
  50. Keeling, M. J., Tildesley, M. J., Atkins, B. D., Penman, B., Southall, E., Guyver-Fletcher, G., . . . Dyson, L. (2021). The impact of school reopening on the spread of COVID-19 in England. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. doi:10.1098/rstb.2020.0261
  51. Kroshus, E., Hawrilenko, M., Tandon, P. S., & Christakis, D. A. (2020). Plans of US Parents Regarding School Attendance for Their Children in the Fall of 2020: A National Survey. JAMA Pediatr. doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2020.3864
  52. Kuttiatt, V. S., Menon, R. P., Abraham, P. R., & Sharma, S. (2020). Should Schools Reopen Early or Late? - Transmission Dynamics of COVID-19 in Children. Indian J Pediatr. doi:10.1007/s12098-020-03401-0
  53. Kwon, I., Kang, S., & Kim, J. S. (2021). School-Based Participatory Response for Reopening During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study of a Metropolitan High School Implementing the Health Promoting School. Front Public Health. doi:10.3389/fpubh.2021.578200
  54. Ladhani, S. N., Baawuah, F., Beckmann, J., Okike, I. O., Ahmad, S., Garstang, J., . . . Ramsay, M. E. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission in primary schools in England in June-December, 2020 (sKIDs): an active, prospective surveillance study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(21)00061-4
  55. Lam, A. C., Berliner, B., & Barrat, V. X. (2021). Students' Use of School-Based Telemedicine Services and Rates of Returning to Class after These Services in a Small Elementary School District. REL 2021-078. 
  56. Lambert, J. A., Trott, K., & Baugh, R. F. (2020). An Analysis of K-12 School Reopening and Its' Impact on Teachers. J Prim Care Community Health. doi:10.1177/2150132720967503
  57. Landeros, A., Ji, X., Lange, K., Stutz, T. C., Xu, J., Sehl, M. E., & Sinsheimer, J. S. (2021). An examination of school reopening strategies during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251242
  58. Larosa, E., Djuric, O., Cassinadri, M., Cilloni, S., Bisaccia, E., Vicentini, M., . . . Bedeschi, E. (2020). Secondary transmission of COVID-19 in preschool and school settings in northern Italy after their reopening in September 2020: a population-based study. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.49.2001911
  59. Lee, B., Hanley, J. P., Nowak, S., Bates, J. H. T., & Hebert-Dufresne, L. (2020). Modeling the impact of school reopening on SARS-CoV-2 transmission using contact structure data from Shanghai. BMC Public Health. doi:10.1186/s12889-020-09799-8
  60. Levinson, M., Cevik, M., & Lipsitch, M. (2020). Reopening Primary Schools during the Pandemic. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMms2024920
  61. Li, A., Harries, M., & Ross, L. F. (2020). Reopening K-12 Schools in the Era of Coronavirus Disease 2019: Review of State-Level Guidance Addressing Equity Concerns. J Pediatr. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2020.08.069
  62. Li, D., Lin, E. Z., Brault, M. A., Paquette, J., Vermund, S. H., & Godri Pollitt, K. J. (2021). Reopening Schools After a Novel Coronavirus Surge. Adv Exp Med Biol. doi:10.1007/978-3-030-63761-3_44
  63. Liu, D., Lin, G., Sun, X., Du, Y., Liu, H., & Qu, M. (2021). Different School Reopening Plans on Coronavirus Disease 2019 Case Growth Rates in the School Setting in the United States. J Sch Health. doi:10.1111/josh.13009
  64. Llupia, A., Borras-Santos, A., Guinovart, C., Utzet, M., Morina, D., & Puig, J. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 transmission in students of public schools of Catalonia (Spain) after a month of reopening. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0251593
  65. Lo Moro, G., Sinigaglia, T., Bert, F., Savatteri, A., Gualano, M. R., & Siliquini, R. (2020). Reopening Schools during the COVID-19 Pandemic: Overview and Rapid Systematic Review of Guidelines and Recommendations on Preventive Measures and the Management of Cases. Int J Environ Res Public Health. doi:10.3390/ijerph17238839
  66. Loconsole, D., Caselli, D., Centrone, F., Morcavallo, C., Campanella, S., Arico, M., & Chironna, M. (2020). SARS-CoV-2 Infection in Children in Southern Italy: A Descriptive Case Series. Int J Environ Res Public Health. doi:10.3390/ijerph17176080
  67. Lordan, R., FitzGerald, G. A., & Grosser, T. (2020). Reopening schools during COVID-19. Science. doi:10.1126/science.abe5765
  68. Maelan, E. N., Gustavsen, A. M., Stranger-Johannessen, E., & Nordahl, T. (2021). Norwegian Students' Experiences of Homeschooling during the COVID-19 Pandemic. 36(1), 5-19. 
  69. Mallapaty, S. (2020). How schools can reopen safely during the pandemic. Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-02403-4
  70. Malta Campos, M., & Vieira, L. F. (2021). COVID-19 and Early Childhood in Brazil: Impacts on Children's Well-Being, Education and Care. 29(1), 125-140. 
  71. Massad, E., Amaku, M., Tadeu Covas, D., Fernandes Lopez, L., & Coutinho, F. A. B. (2021). Estimating the effects of reopening of schools on the course of the epidemic of COVID-19. Epidemiol Infect. doi:10.1017/S0950268821000686
  72. McLoughlin, G. M., Fleischhacker, S., Hecht, A. A., McGuirt, J., Vega, C., Read, M., . . . Dunn, C. G. (2020). Feeding Students During COVID-19-Related School Closures: A Nationwide Assessment of Initial Responses. J Nutr Educ Behav. doi:10.1016/j.jneb.2020.09.018
  73. Mensah, A. A., Sinnathamby, M., Zaidi, A., Coughlan, L., Simmons, R., Ismail, S. A., . . . Ladhani, S. N. (2021). SARS-CoV-2 infections in children following the full re-opening of schools and the impact of national lockdown: Prospective, national observational cohort surveillance, July-December 2020, England. J Infect. doi:10.1016/j.jinf.2021.02.022
  74. Milani, G. P., Marchisio, P., Rocchi, A., Bertolozzi, G., Furlan, L., La Vecchia, A., . . . Costantino, G. (2021). Frequency of asymptomatic carriers of SARS-CoV-2 among children and adults after school reopening. Ital J Pediatr. doi:10.1186/s13052-021-01016-5
  75. Minkos, M. L., & Gelbar, N. W. Considerations for Educators in Supporting Student Learning in the Midst of COVID-19. 58(2), 416-426. 
  76. Miron, O., Yu, K.-H., Wilf-Miron, R., Kohane, I., & Davidovitch, N. (2020). COVID-19 infections following physical school reopening. Arch Dis Child. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2020-321018
  77. Mueller, A. S., Diefendorf, S., Abrutyn, S., Beardall, K. A., Millar, K., O'Reilly, L., . . . Watkins, J. T. (2021). Youth Mask-Wearing and Social-Distancing Behavior at In-Person High School Graduations During the COVID-19 Pandemic. J Adolesc Health. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2020.12.123
  78. Munday, J. D., Sherratt, K., Meakin, S., Endo, A., Pearson, C. A. B., Hellewell, J., . . . Funk, S. (2021). Implications of the school-household network structure on SARS-CoV-2 transmission under school reopening strategies in England. Nat Commun. doi:10.1038/s41467-021-22213-0
  79. Naimark, D., Mishra, S., Barrett, K., Khan, Y. A., Mac, S., Ximenes, R., & Sander, B. (2021). Simulation-Based Estimation of SARS-CoV-2 Infections Associated With School Closures and Community-Based Nonpharmaceutical Interventions in Ontario, Canada. JAMA Netw Open. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.3793 Canadian Flag
  80. O'Dowd, A. (2020). Covid-19: Papers justifying government's plans to reopen schools are "inconclusive," say union bosses. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2108
  81. Ondrasek, N., Truong, N., & Edgerton, A. K. (2021). Marin County: Leveraging Education and Public Health Partnerships to Support School Reopening. Research Brief. 
  82. Oster, E. (2021). Beyond past due: data to guide US school reopenings. Nature. doi:10.1038/d41586-020-03647-w
  83. Otte Im Kampe, E., Lehfeld, A.-S., Buda, S., Buchholz, U., & Haas, W. (2020). Surveillance of COVID-19 school outbreaks, Germany, March to August 2020. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.38.2001645
  84. Oyeyemi, A., Adesina, A., & Ogoina, D. (2020). Fumigation of Schools for COVID-19 Prevention in Nigeria: The Need for a Rethink. Am J Trop Med Hyg. doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-1037
  85. Ozamiz-Etxebarria, N., Dosil Santamaria, M., Idoiaga Mondragon, N., & Berasategi Santxo, N. (2021). [Emotional state of school and university teachers in northern Spain in the face of COVID-19.]. Rev Esp Salud Publica. 
  86. Panovska-Griffiths, J., Kerr, C. C., Stuart, R. M., Mistry, D., Klein, D. J., Viner, R. M., & Bonell, C. (2020). Determining the optimal strategy for reopening schools, the impact of test and trace interventions, and the risk of occurrence of a second COVID-19 epidemic wave in the UK: a modelling study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30250-9
  87. Panovska-Griffiths, J., Kerr, C. C., Waites, W., Stuart, R. M., Mistry, D., Foster, D., . . . Bonell, C. (2021). Modelling the potential impact of mask use in schools and society on COVID-19 control in the UK. Sci Rep. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-88075-0
  88. Pattison, K. L., Hoke, A. M., Schaefer, E. W., Alter, J., & Sekhar, D. L. (2021). National Survey of School Employees: COVID-19, School Reopening, and Student Wellness. J Sch Health. doi:10.1111/josh.13010
  89. Pavilonis, B., Ierardi, A. M., Levine, L., Mirer, F., & Kelvin, E. A. (2021). Corrigendum to "Estimating aerosol transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in New York City public schools during reopening"[Environmental Research 195 (2021) 110805]. Environ Res. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.110866
  90. Pavilonis, B., Ierardi, A. M., Levine, L., Mirer, F., & Kelvin, E. A. (2021). Estimating aerosol transmission risk of SARS-CoV-2 in New York City public schools during reopening. Environ Res. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.110805
  91. Pelaez, M., & Novak, G. (2020). Returning to School: Separation Problems and Anxiety in the Age of Pandemics. Behav Anal Pract. doi:10.1007/s40617-020-00467-2
  92. Phillips, B., Browne, D. T., Anand, M., & Bauch, C. T. (2021). Model-based projections for COVID-19 outbreak size and student-days lost to closure in Ontario childcare centres and primary schools. Sci Rep. doi:10.1038/s41598-021-85302-6
  93. Pollock, A. M. (2020). Covid-19: local implementation of tracing and testing programmes could enable some schools to reopen. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m1187
  94. Powell, A. A., Amin-Chowdhury, Z., Mensah, A., Ramsay, M. E., Saliba, V., & Ladhani, S. N. (2021). SEVERE ACUTE RESPIRATORY SYNDROME CORONAVIRUS 2 INFECTIONS IN PRIMARY SCHOOL AGE CHILDREN AFTER PARTIAL REOPENING OF SCHOOLS IN ENGLAND. Pediatr Infect Dis J. doi:10.1097/INF.0000000000003120
  95. Pradhan, N. A., & Nanji, K. (2021). Implications for Schools Reopening During the Second Wave of COVID-19 in Pakistan. Asia Pac J Public Health. doi:10.1177/1010539521996629
  96. Rafiei, Y., & Mello, M. M. (2020). The Missing Piece - SARS-CoV-2 Testing and School Reopening. N Engl J Med. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2028209
  97. Ramos, M. F., Bamdad, T., & Lloyd, C. M. (2021). Strategies to Virtually Support and Engage Families of Young Children during COVID-19 (and Beyond): Lessons from Research and Considerations for Your Community. 
  98. Ren, Z., Xin, Y., Ge, J., Zhao, Z., Liu, D., Ho, R. C. M., & Ho, C. S. H. (2021). Psychological Impact of COVID-19 on College Students After School Reopening: A Cross-Sectional Study Based on Machine Learning. Front Psychol. doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2021.641806
  99. Rimmer, A. (2020). Covid-19: Government must plan for schools to reopen, say paediatricians. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2458
  100. Rypdal, M., Rypdal, V., Jakobsen, P. K., Ytterstad, E., Lovsletten, O., Klingenberg, C., & Rypdal, K. (2021). Modelling suggests limited change in the reproduction number from reopening Norwegian kindergartens and schools during the COVID-19 pandemic. PLoS One. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0238268
  101. Saito, M., Kikuchi, Y., Lefor, A. K., & Hoshina, M. (2021). Mental health in Japanese children during school closures due to the COVID-19. Pediatr Int. doi:10.1111/ped.14718
  102. Sarmiento, P. J. D., Sarmiento, C. L. T., & Tolentino, R. L. B. (2021). Face-to-face classes during COVID-19: a call for deliberate and well-planned school health protocols in the Philippine context. J Public Health (Oxf). doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdab006
  103. Schild, R., Hopf, L., Loos, S., Oh, J., & Levtchenko, E. (2021). Heterogeneous Recommendations for School Attendance in Children With Chronic Kidney Diseases During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Europe. Front Pediatr. doi:10.3389/fped.2021.646595
  104. Selden, T. M., Berdahl, T. A., & Fang, Z. (2020). The Risk Of Severe COVID-19 Within Households Of School Employees And School-Age Children. Health Aff (Millwood). doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01536
  105. Sheikh, A., Sheikh, A., Sheikh, Z., & Dhami, S. (2020). Reopening schools after the COVID-19 lockdown. J Glob Health. doi:10.7189/jogh.10.010376
  106. Shendell, D. G., Aggarwal, J., Campbell, M. L. F., Gonzalez, L. N., Kaplun, E., Koshy, K., & Mackie, T. I. (2021). Fall 2020 COVID-19 Needs Assessment among New Jersey Secondary School Educational Professionals. Int J Environ Res Public Health. doi:10.3390/ijerph18084083
  107. Simon, A., Huebner, J., Berner, R., Munro, A. P. S., Exner, M., Huppertz, H.-I., & Walger, P. (2020). Measures to maintain regular operations and prevent outbreaks of SARS-CoV-2 in childcare facilities or schools under pandemic conditions and co-circulation of other respiratory pathogens. GMS Hyg Infect Control. doi:10.3205/dgkh000357
  108. Smith, W. C. (2021). Consequences of school closure on access to education: Lessons from the 2013-2016 Ebola pandemic. Int Rev Educ. doi:10.1007/s11159-021-09900-2
  109. Smith-Norowitz, T. A., Kohlhoff, S., & Hammerschlag, M. R. (2021). Coronavirus disease 2019 prevalence rates in reopened private schools in New York City: Impact of diagnostic methods. Acta Paediatr. doi:10.1111/apa.15853
  110. Somekh, I., Boker, L. K., Shohat, T., Pettoello-Mantovani, M., Simoes, E. A. F., & Somekh, E. (2021). Comparison of COVID-19 Incidence Rates Before and After School Reopening in Israel. JAMA Netw Open. doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2021.7105
  111. Somekh, I., Shohat, T., Boker, L. K., Simoes, E. A. F., & Somekh, E. (2021). Reopening Schools and the Dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 Infections in Israel: A Nationwide Study. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciab035
  112. Spitzer, M. (2021). Open schools! Weighing the effects of viruses and lockdowns on children. Trends Neurosci Educ. doi:10.1016/j.tine.2021.100151
  113. Starr, M. (2020). Back to school: Safe for children with underlying medical conditions. Aust J Gen Pract. doi:10.31128/AJGP-COVID-21
  114. Stein-Zamir, C., Abramson, N., Shoob, H., Libal, E., Bitan, M., Cardash, T., . . . Miskin, I. (2020). A large COVID-19 outbreak in a high school 10 days after schools' reopening, Israel, May 2020. Euro Surveill. doi:10.2807/1560-7917.ES.2020.25.29.2001352
  115. Tadese, M., Haile, A. B., Moltot, T., & Silesh, M. (2021). Perceived Risk of COVID-19 and Related Factors Among University Students in Ethiopia During School Reopening. Infect Drug Resist. doi:10.2147/IDR.S302126
  116. Vatcheva, K. P., Sifuentes, J., Oraby, T., Maldonado, J. C., Huber, T., & Villalobos, M. C. (2021). Social distancing and testing as optimal strategies against the spread of COVID-19 in the Rio Grande Valley of Texas. Infect Dis Model. doi:10.1016/j.idm.2021.04.004
  117. Vermund, S. H., & Pitzer, V. E. (2020). Asymptomatic transmission and the infection fatality risk for COVID-19: Implications for school reopening. Clin Infect Dis. doi:10.1093/cid/ciaa855
  118. Villanueva, F., Notario, A., Cabanas, B., Martin, P., Salgado, S., & Gabriel, M. F. (2021). Assessment of CO2 and aerosol (PM2.5, PM10, UFP) concentrations during the reopening of schools in the COVID-19 pandemic: The case of a metropolitan area in Central-Southern Spain. Environ Res. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.111092
  119. Viner, R. M., Bonell, C., Drake, L., Jourdan, D., Davies, N., Baltag, V., . . . Darzi, A. (2021). Reopening schools during the COVID-19 pandemic: governments must balance the uncertainty and risks of reopening schools against the clear harms associated with prolonged closure. Arch Dis Child. doi:10.1136/archdischild-2020-319963
  120. Walger, P., Heininger, U., Knuf, M., Exner, M., Popp, W., Fischbach, T., . . . Simon, A. (2020). Children and adolescents in the CoVid-19 pandemic: Schools and daycare centers are to be opened again without restrictions. The protection of teachers, educators, carers and parents and the general hygiene rules do not conflict with this. GMS Hyg Infect Control. doi:10.3205/dgkh000346
  121. Weijer, C., Hemming, K., Phillips Hey, S., & Fernandez Lynch, H. (2021). Reopening schools safely in the face of COVID-19: Can cluster randomized trials help? Clin Trials. doi:10.1177/1740774520984860
  122. Wise, J. (2020). Covid-19: Delaying school reopening by two weeks would halve risks to children, says iSAGE. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2079
  123. Wise, J. (2020). Covid-19: NHS Test and Trace must improve for schools to reopen safely, say researchers. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m3083
  124. Wise, J. (2020). Covid-19: Push to reopen schools risks new wave of infections, says Independent SAGE. BMJ. doi:10.1136/bmj.m2161

Second Wave or Re-emergence Modelling


Secondary Impacts of COVID-19

Predicting Consequences of Curtailing Outpatient Scheduled Cardiac Procedures in the Face of COVID-19 Healthcare Resource Needs in Ontario

Sexual Health

Grey Literature

Social Determinants and COVID-19

Grey Literature

Pre-Prints or Published Articles 

Studies referencing Toronto or Ontario

  • Thomas, B., & Flood, C. M. (2020). Eliminating Religious and Philosophical Exemptions: The Next Step in Ontario's Campaign against Vaccine Hesitancy. Healthc Policy. doi:10.12927/hcpol.2020.26357 
    • "This paper explores whether and to what extent vaccine refusal is protected under the Charter and argues that the elimination of nonmedical exemptions can be justified under Section 1 of the Charter. The issue of mandatory vaccination may take on special urgency in the coming months and years, if and when a vaccine is found for COVID-19."

Temperature Screening for Reopening Businesses

Grey Literature

  • Enforcement Policy for Telethermographic Systems During the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) Public Health Emergency: Guidance for Industry and Food and Drug Administration Staff (April 2020).

Transmission - Outdoors

  • Information about the Events Research Programme (ERP), paving the way for larger  audiences to attend sport, theatre and gigs safely this summer [UK Department of Health and Social Care, updated 04-16-2021]
  • Bulfone TC, Malekinejad M, Rutherford GW, Razani N. Outdoor Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 and Other Respiratory Viruses: A Systematic Review. J Infect Dis. 2021 Feb 24;223(4):550-561. Available from:
  • Adami PE, Cianca J, McCloskey B, Derman W, Steinacker JM, O'Connor F, et al. Infectious Diseases Outbreak Management Tool for endurance mass participation sporting events: an international effort to counteract the COVID-19 spread in the endurance sport setting. BJSM online. 2021 Feb;55(3):181-2. Available from:
  • Andersen TB, Dahl AB, Carstensen JB. Incidence and Relative Risk of infection with SARS-CoV-2 virus (Covid-19) in European Soccer Players. medRxiv/bioRxiv. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:
                    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the incidence and relative risk of infection Covid-virus in soccer players. Data from five leagues was used and compared to data from the normal population in each country. Our results revealed that the relative risk was higher in soccer players in three countries when correcting for the estimated true number of infected people in the populations. We discuss that the reason for the higher incidence in soccer players is caused by the virus entering a group of players that work closely together.
  • Atherstone C, Peterson ML, Malone M, Honein MA, MacNeil A, O'Neal CS, et al. Time from Start of Quarantine to SARS-CoV-2 Positive Test Among Quarantined College and University Athletes - 17 States, June-October 2020. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2021 Jan 08;70(1):7-11. Available from:
  • Ayoub F, Sato T, Sakuraba A. Football and COVID-19 risk: correlation is not causation. Clin Microbiol Infect. 2021 Feb;27(2):291-2. Available from:
  • Belosi F, Conte M, Gianelle V, Santachiara G, Contini D. On the concentration of SARS-CoV-2 in outdoor air and the interaction with pre-existing atmospheric particles. Environ Res. 2021 Feb;193:110603. Available from:
  • Bourdrel T, Annesi-Maesano I, Alahmad B, Maesano CN, Bind MA. The impact of outdoor air pollution on COVID-19: a review of evidence from in vitro, animal, and human studies. Eur. 2021 Mar 31;30(159):31. Available from:
  • Chakrabarty RK, Beeler P, Liu P, Goswami S, Harvey RD, Pervez S, et al. Ambient PM2.5 exposure and rapid spread of COVID-19 in the United States. Sci Total Environ. 2021 Mar 15;760:143391. Available from:
  • Chirizzi D, Conte M, Feltracco M, Dinoi A, Gregoris E, Barbaro E, et al. SARS-CoV-2 concentrations and virus-laden aerosol size distributions in outdoor air in north and south of Italy. Environ Int. 2021 01;146:106255. Available from:
  • Clouston SAP, Morozova O, Meliker JR. Outdoor transmission of COVID-19: Analysis of windspeed. medRxiv/bioRxiv. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:
  • D'Agostino EM, Armstrong SC, Humphreys L, Coffman S, Sinclair G, Permar SR, et al. Symptomatic SARS-CoV-2 Transmission in Youth and Staff Attending Day Camps. Pediatrics. 2021 Feb 03;03:03. Available from:

  • Drezner JA, Drezner SM, Magner KN, Ayala JT. COVID-19 Surveillance in Youth Soccer During Small Group Training: A Safe Return to Sports Activity. Sports health. 2021 Jan/Feb;13(1):15-7. Available from:
  • Edwards T, Kay GA, Aljayyoussi G, Owen SI, Harland AR, Pierce NS, et al. SARS-CoV-2 Transmission Risk from sports Equipment (STRIKE). medRxiv/bioRxiv. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:
  • England R, Peirce N, Wedatilake T, Torresi J, Kemp S, Cook M, et al. The Potential for Airborne Transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in Sport: A Cricket Case Study. Int J Sports Med. 2021 Jan 28;28:28. Available from:
  • Estrada MAR, Levy I. Can Massive Religious Festivals Celebrations Encourage a Faster Spread of a Pandemic? The Case of COVID-19 in Israel. SSRN. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:
  • Garcia W, Mendez S, Fray B, Nicolas A. Assessment of the risks of viral transmission in non-confined crowds. ArXiv. 2021 [Epub ahead of print]. Available from:

Vaccine Approval, Regulation & Prioritization

Grey Literature

Published Articles

Vaccines or Treatments (under development)


Grey Literature

Vaccines and Immune Response


Grey Literature


Vaccine Hesitancy

Vapers or Smokers and COVID-19

Viral load or virus survival in various contexts


Water or Wastewater 

Public Health Ontario Links

PHO: Daily Scan of Selected Public Health Organizations [Updated daily]

  • Includes Public Health Guidelines 

PHO: Synopsis of Key Articles [Updated regularly]

  • "PHO is actively monitoring, reviewing and assessing relevant research related to Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV). This web page briefly describes and summarizes key points from new articles which are of importance to public health. This page will be updated regularly as the situation evolves and more research becomes available."

Publisher Sites or Bibliographic Databases (links to articles on 2019-n-Cov)

WHO Daily Situation Reports

WHO: COVID-19 Daily Situation Reports

Starting the week of August 7th the WHO started providing weekly epidemiological reports. The last daily situation report was on Aug. 16, 2020. 

16 August 2020 - Situation report - 209

15 August 2020 - Situation report - 208
14 August 2020 - Situation report - 207

13 August 2020 - Situation report - 206
12 August 2020 - Situation report - 205
11 August 2020 - Situation report - 204
10 August 2020 - Situation report - 203

9 August 2020 - Situation report - 202
8 August 2020 - Situation report - 201
7 August 2020 - Situation report - 200
6 August 2020 - Situation report - 199

5 August 2020 - Situation report - 198

4 August 2020 - Situation report - 197

3 August 2020 - Situation report - 196
2 August 2020 - Situation report - 195
1 August 2020 - Situation report - 194

31 July 2020 - Situation report - 193
30 July 2020 - Situation report - 192
29 July 2020 - Situation report - 191
28 July 2020 - Situation report - 190
27 July 2020 - Situation report - 189
26 July 2020 - Situation report - 188
25 July 2020 - Situation report - 187
24 July 2020 - Situation report - 186
23 July 2020 - Situation report - 185
22 July 2020 - Situation report - 184
21 July 2020 - Situation report - 183
20 July 2020 - Situation report - 182
19 July 2020 - Situation report - 181
18 July 2020 - Situation report - 180
17 July 2020 - Situation report - 179
16 July 2020 - Situation report - 178
15 July 2020 - Situation report - 177
14 July 2020 - Situation report - 176
13 July 2020 - Situation report - 175
12 July 2020 - Situation report - 174
11 July 2020 - Situation report - 173
10 July 2020 - Situation report - 172

9 July 2020 - Situation report - 171

8 July 2020 - Situation report - 170

7 July 2020 - Situation report - 169

6 July 2020 - Situation report - 168

5 July 2020 - Situation report - 167

4 July 2020 - Situation report - 166 

3 July 2020 - Situation report - 165 

2 July 2020 - Situation report - 164 

1 July 2020 - Situation report - 163

30 June 2020 - Situation report - 162

29 June 2020 - Situation report - 161

28 June 2020 - Situation report - 160

27 June 2020 - Situation report - 159

26 June 2020 - Situation report - 158
25 June 2020 - Situation report - 157

24 June 2020 - Situation report - 156

23 June 2020 - Situation report - 155

22 June 2020 - Situation report - 154

21 June 2020 - Situation report - 153

20 June 2020 - Situation report - 152

19 June 2020 - Situation report - 151

18 June 2020 - Situation report - 150

17 June 2020 - Situation report - 149

16 June 2020 - Situation report - 148

15 June 2020 - Situation report - 147

14 June 2020 - Situation report - 146

13 June 2020 - Situation report - 145

12 June 2020 - Situation report - 144

11 June 2020 - Situation report - 143

10 June 2020 - Situation report - 142

9 June 2020 - Situation report - 141

8 June 2020 - Situation report - 140

7 June 2020 - Situation report - 139

6 June 2020 - Situation report - 138

5 June 2020 - Situation report - 137

4 June 2020 - Situation report - 136

3 June 2020 - Situation report - 135

2 June 2020 - Situation report - 134

1 June 2020 - Situation report - 133

31 May 2020 - Situation report - 132

30 May 2020 - Situation report - 131

29 May 2020 - Situation report - 130

28 May 2020 - Situation report - 129

27 May 2020 - Situation report - 128

26 May 2020 - Situation report - 127

25 May 2020 - Situation report - 126

24 May 2020 - Situation report - 125

23 May 2020 - Situation report - 124

22 May 2020 - Situation report - 123

21 May 2020 - Situation report - 122

20 May 2020 - Situation report - 121

19 May 2020 - Situation report - 120

18 May 2020 - Situation Report 119

17 May 2020 - Situation report - 118

16 May 2020 - Situation report - 117

15 May 2020 - Situation report - 116

14 May 2020 - Situation report - 115

13 May 2020 - Situation report - 114

12 May 2020 -Situation report - 113

11 May 2020 - Situation report - 112

10 May 2020 - Situation report - 111

​9 May 2020 - Situation report - 110

8 May 2020 - Situation report - 109

7 May 2020 - Situation report - 108

6 May 2020 - Situation report - 107

5 May 2020 - Situation report - 106

4 May 2020 - Situation report - 105

3 May 2020 - Situation report - 104

2 May 2020 - Situation report - 103

1 May 2020 - Situation report - 102

30 April 2020 - Situation report - 101

29 April 2020 - Situation report - 100

28 April 2020 - Situation report - 99

27 April 2020 - Situation report - 98

26 April 2020 - Situation report - 97

25 April 2020 - Situation report - 96

24 April 2020 - Situation report - 95

23 April 2020 - Situation report - 94

22 April 2020 - Situation report - 93

21 April 2020 - Situation report - 92

20 April 2020 - Situation report - 91

19 April 2020 - Situation report - 90

18 April 2020 - Situation report - 89

17 April 2020 - Situation report - 88

16 April 2020 - Situation report - 87

15 April 2020 - Situation report - 86

14 April 2020 - Situation report - 85

13 April 2020 - Situation report - 84

12 April 2020 - Situation report - 83

11 April 2020 - Situation report - 82

10 April 2020 - Situation report - 81

9 April 202- Situation report - 80

8 April 2020 - Situation report - 79

7 April 2020 - Situation report - 78

6 April 2020 - Situation report - 77

5 April 2020 - Situation report - 76

4 April 2020 - Situation report - 75

3 April 2020 - Situation report - 74

2 April 2020 - Situation report - 73

1 April 2020 - Situation report - 72

31 March 2020 - Situation report - 71

30 March 2020 - Situation report - 70

29 March 2020 - Situation report - 69

28 March 2020 - Situation report - 69

27 March 2020 - Situation report - 67

26 March 2020 - Situation report - 66

25 March 2020 - Situation report - 65

24 March 2020 - Situation report - 64

23 March 2020 - Situation report - 63

22 March 2020 - Situation report - 62

21 March 2020 - Situation report - 61

20 March 2020 - Situation report - 60

19 March 2020 - Situation report - 59

18 March 2020 - Situation report - 58

17 March 2020 - Situation report - 57

16 March 2020 - Situation report - 56

​15 March 2020 - Situation report - 55

​14 March 2020 - Situation report - 54

​13 March 2020 - Situation report - 53

​12 March 2020 - Situation report - 52

11 March 2020 - Situation report - 51

10 March 2020 - Situation report - 50

​9 March 2020 - Situation report - 49

​8 March 2020 - Situation report - 48

​7 March 2020 - Situation report - 47

​6 March 2020 - Situation report - 46

​5 March 2020 - Situation report - 45

4 March 2020 - Situation report - 44

3 March 2020 - Situation report - 43

​2 March 2020 - Situation report - 42 

1 March 2020 - Situation report - 41 

29 February 2020 - Situation report - 40

28 February 2020 - Situation report - 39

27 February 2020 - Situation report - 38

26 February 2020 - Situation report - 37

25 February 2020 - Situation report - 36

24 February 2020 - Situation report - 35

23 February 2020 - Situation report - 34

22 February 2020 - Situation report - 33

21 February 2020 - Situation report - 32

20 February 2020 - Situation report - 31

19 February 2020 - Situation report - 30

18 February 2020: Situation report - 29

17 February 2020: Situation report - 28

16 February 2020: Situation report - 27

15 February 2020: Situation report - 26

14 February 2020: Situation report - 25

13 February 2020: Situation report - 24

12 February 2020: Situation report - 23

11 February 2020: Situation report -22

10 February 2020: Situation report - 21

9 February 2020: Situation report - 20

8 February 2020: Situation report - 19

7 February 2020: Situation report - 18

6 February 2020: Situation report - 17

5 February 2020: Situation report - 16 - Erratum

4 February 2020: Situation report - 15

3 February 2020: Situation report - 14 - Erratum 

2 February 2020: Situation report - 13

1 February 2020: Situation report - 12

31 January 2020: Situation report - 11

30 January 2020: Situation report - 10 

29 January 2020: Situation report - 9 

28 January 2020: Situation report - 8 

27 January 2020: Situation report - 7 

26 January 2020: Situation report - 6

25 January 2020: Situation report - 5

24 January 2020: Situation report - 4

23 January 2020: Situation report - 3

22 January 2020: Situation report - 2

21 January 2020: Situation report - 1