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COVID-19: COVID -19 Vaccines

Information surveillance of the novel coronavirus (COVID-19).


This page is no longer being updated regularly.  

To receive the most up to date information please email and ask to be added to the mailing list for the "TPH COVID-19 Weekly Digest" which contains:

  • Canadian or International guidance documents or grey literature,
  • a selective list of published articles on COVID-19 related public health topics and
  • upcoming Webinars on COVID-19.  

Note: The information in this guide does not replace medical expertise. Please consult with your health care provider if you have any questions or concerns about your suitability for the COVID-19 vaccine. 

Some sources of information are international (US, UK, EU etc.). For Canadian information sources, refer to the items marked with a Canadian flag or refer to studies published on the COVID-19 vaccines approved for use in Canada:

  • Johnson & Johnson's Janssen vaccine
  • Moderna or
  • Oxford Astra Zeneca, or
  • Pfizer BioNTech vaccine.

Other vaccines appearing on this guide are for research or information purposes only. 

Coronavirus (c/o CDC's Public Health Image Library)

Last updated: March 2021

This guide was created by Toronto Public Health (TPH) Library to link TPH staff to a selective list of online resources on the Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV or SARS-CoV-2) which causes COVID-19. We are grateful for our public health library colleagues across Ontario (i.e. Ontario Public Health Library Association members) who communicate regularly throughout the pandemic and share topics and resources of interest which were added to this guide.  

  • Some links in this guide are from other jurisdictions. If in doubt, always follow the guidance received from your local health officials (TPH COVID or Ontario COVID information).
  • As of February 11, 2020 this guide will be updated to reflect the new disease name (COVID-19)  but readers may notice that the previous name/s in earlier publications.
  • Disclaimer:  This guide is for informational purposes only. Please follow the advice of your local public health officials. 
  • The guide will be updated Monday - Friday.
  • For comprehensive searches, research questions, or comments on the guide please email TPH library

American Sign Language Resources


How Vaccines are Developed

Johnson & Johnson (Janssen) Vaccine (approved by Health Canada)

Note: The Johnson & Johnson vaccine is also named Janssen COVID-19 vaccine or Ad26.COV2.S recombinant or Ad26.COV2.S or JNJ-78436735 or Ad26COVS1 (in published studies or clinical trials). 

Clinical Trial

Moderna Vaccine (approved by Health Canada)

Note: The Moderna vaccine is known as mRNA-1273 (in published studies and clinical trials). 

Oxford Astra-Zeneca Vaccine (approved by Health Canada Feb. 26, 2021)

  • Ramasamy MN, et al. Oxford COVID Vaccine Trial Group. Safety and immunogenicity of ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 vaccine administered in a prime-boost regimen in young and old adults (COV002): a single-blind, randomised, controlled, phase 2/3 trial. Lancet. 2021 Dec 19;396(10267):1979-1993. . Epub 2020 Nov 19. Erratum in: Lancet. 2021 Dec 19;396(10267):1978. PMID: 33220855; PMCID: PMC7674972.


Pfizer BioNTech Vaccine (approved by Health Canada)

Note: Pfizer-BioNTech's vaccine is known as known as BNT162b29, the generic name tozinameran or the brand name Comirnaty. 


Science behind COVID-19 (Moderna mRNA) Vaccine (with Dr. K. Corbett)

Dr. Kizzmekia Corbett

Source: Speaking of Science (podcast)

Spacing between Doses

Vaccine Hesitancy and People of Colour

This information was compiled for a specific request. It was last updated January 2021. If you require updated information please email
City of Toronto
Note: The Black Scientists’ Task Force, in conjunction with several community organizations, including the Black Health Alliance (BHA); the Canadian Multicultural Inventors Museum and Harriet Tubman Institute; Women’s Health in Women’s Hands, and TAIBU co-hosted a series of free virtual town hall meetings for Toronto’s Black communities during Black History Month and into March. These recordings are available for viewing:
Canada: COVID 19 Impact and People of Colour

Canada: Vaccine Hesitancy  


United States

Includes reference to:

Includes reference to:


Vaccine Information in various Languages

How are Vaccines Developed? [WHO]

  • Click above and look for translations in: Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, or simplified Chinese

How do vaccines work? [WHO]

The Different Types of COVID-19 Vaccines [WHO]

Manufacturing, Safety and Quality Control of Vaccines [WHO]

  • Click above and look for translations in: Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, or simplified Chinese

Country Readiness for COVID-19 Vaccines [WHO]

  • Available in: Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, or simplified Chinese

Fair and Equitable Access and Allocation of Vaccines [WHO]

  • Click above and look for translations in: Arabic, French, Portuguese, Russian, Spanish, or simplified Chinese

Vaccine Receptivity or Hesitancy

This information was compiled for a specific request. It was last updated January 2021. If you require updated information please email

Grey Literature

Polls & News Reports in Canada (Aug. 1 2020 - Jan. 29, 2021)

  • Lazarus, J.V., Ratzan, S.C., Palayew, A. et al. A global survey of potential acceptance of a COVID-19 vaccine. Nat Med (2020).
    • Countries included:  Brazil, Canada, China, Ecuador, France, Germany, India, Italy, Mexico, Nigeria, Poland, Russia, Singapore, South Africa, South Korea, Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom and the United States

  • Also see White Coat Black Art episode embedded on this page: "The Vaccine Whisperer: How a Quebec program is convincing vaccine hesitant parents to immunize their newborns, and what it could mean for COVID-19"

Vaccines and First Nations/Indigenous Populations

Grey Literature

Vaccine Comparative Analysis

Grey Literature

Published Articles

Vaccine Information for Pregnancy or Lactation

Grey Literature

Published Articles

Vaccine Risks or Adverse Events Following Immunization (AEFI)

Grey Literature

Published Articles

How to locate reliable vaccine information

Canadian Vaccination Evidence Resource and Exchange Centre (CANVax) is an online database of reliable vaccine information. CanVax is a member of the Vaccine Safety Net. 

The Vaccine Safety Net (VSN) is a global network of websites, established by the World Health Organization, that provides reliable information on vaccine safety. Look for this logo on a site to ensure it provides reliable Vaccine information.

Vaccine Safety New logo

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