Artificial Intelligence in Medical Education: Are We Ready For It?
Authors: Nazish Imran, Masood Jawaid
Type: Open Access Article
Description: “Our fate is to change.” Enrico Coiera emphasized in Lancet, while discussing fate of medicine in the time of Artificial intelligence (AI). The rapid growth of artificial intelligence in healthcare around the globe are glimmers of a future, where AI driven tools are likely to define the way medicine will be practiced in 21st century. Artificial Intelligence (AI) or the mimicking of human cognition by computers is conceptualized as a machine with intelligent behavior like reasoning, perception, ability to generalize and learn from experience. Literature suggests that AI systems and tools can help to deliver precision medicine, be faster, effective and as accurate as human clinicians and improve delivery of healthcare.
Educational Data Mining and Learning Analytics
Authors: Ryan S. Baker, Paul Salvador Inventado
Description: In this chapter, we discuss educational data mining and learning analytics (Baker & Siemens, 2014) as a set of emerging practices that may assist distance education instructors in gaining a rich understanding of their students
How to Read Articles That Use Machine Learning Users’ Guides to the Medical Literature
Authors: Yun Liu, Po-Hsuan Cameron Chen, Jonathan Krause, Lily Peng
Description: In recent years, many new clinical diagnostic tools have been developed using complicated machine learning methods. Irrespective of how a diagnostic tool is derived, it must be evaluated using a 3-step process of deriving, validating, and establishing the clinical effectiveness of the tool. Machine learning–based tools should also be assessed for the type of machine learning model used and its appropriateness for the input data type and data set size. Machine learning models also generally have additional prespecified settings called hyperparameters, which must be tuned on a data set independent of the validation set. On the validation set, the outcome against which the model is evaluated is termed the reference standard. The rigor of the reference standard must be assessed, such as against a universally accepted gold standard or expert grading.
Use of Learning Analytics Data in Health Care–Related Educational Disciplines: Systematic Review
Authors: Albert KM Chan, Michael G Botelho, Otto LT Lam
Type: Journal Article
Description: While the application of learning analytics in tertiary education has received increasing attention in recent years, a much smaller number have explored its use in health care-related educational studies. This systematic review aims to examine the use of e-learning analytics data in health care studies.
What Do Medical Students Actually Need to Know About Artificial Intelligence
Authors: Liam G. McCoy, Sujay Nagaraj, Felipe Morgado, Vinyas Harish, Sunit Das and Leo Anthony Celi
Description: With emerging innovations in artificial intelligence (AI) poised to substantially impact medical practice, interest in training current and future physicians about the technology is growing. Alongside comes the question of what, precisely, should medical students be taught. While competencies for the clinical usage of AI are broadly similar to those for any other novel technology, there are qualitative differences of critical importance to concerns regarding explainability, health equity, and data security. Drawing on experiences at the University of Toronto Faculty of Medicine and MIT Critical Data’s “datathons”, the authors advocate for a dualfocused
approach: combining robust data science-focused additions to baseline health research curricula and extracurricular programs to cultivate leadership in this space.
Developing a Framework for Integrating Health Equity into the Learning Health System
Authors: Danielle Brooks, Megan Douglas, Neelum Aggarwal, Shyam Prabhakaran, Kisha Holden, Dominic Mack
Description: While there have been gains in the overall quality of health care, racial and ethnic disparities in health outcomes continue to persist in the United States. The Learning Health System (LHS) has the potential to significantly improve health care quality using patient‐centered design, data analytics, and continuous improvement. To ensure that health disparities are also being addressed, targeted approaches must be used. This document sets forth a practical framework to incorporate health equity into a developing LHS. Using a case study approach, the framework is applied to 2 projects focused on the reduction of health disparities to highlight its application.
Engaging With Issues of Cultural Diversity and Discrimination Through Critical Emotional Reflexivity in Online Learning
Author: Dr. Michalinos Zembylas.
Description: The purposes of this article are to describe the adult learners' emotional experiences as a result of engaging with issues of cultural diversity and discrimination, and to interrogate the ways in which critical emotional reflexivity emerges in the online format. The analysis is done in the context of an online course on diversity, inequality, and multicultural education; this course is part of a distance education master's level program in Educational Studies and the participants are primary and secondary school teachers. The findings provide evidence of (a) how adult learners respond and constantly negotiate their learning practices and the ways they feel about cultural diversity and discrimination, and highlight the different ways in which they reflect critically on their understanding of cultural/ethnic/social differences; (b) how online learning, contrary to popular belief, can be a useful medium to express difficult emotions related to racism, prejudice, and discrimination.
Medical Students' Corner: Lessons From COVID-19 in Equity, Adaptability, and Community for the Future of Medical Education
Authors: Simran Mann, Shonnelly Novintan, Yasmin Hazemi-Jebelli, Daniel Faehndrich
Description: As UK medical students, we recently completed 3 months of remote learning due to the COVID-19 pandemic, before taking online end-of-the-year exams. We are now entering our final year of medical school. Based on our experiences and our understanding of others’ experiences, we believe that three key lessons have been universal for medical students around the world. The lessons learned throughout this process address the need for a fair system for medical students, the importance of adaptability in all aspects of medical education, and the value of a strong medical school community. These lessons can be applied in the years to come to improve medical education as we know it.
Online Racial Discrimination: A Growing Problem for Adolescents
Author: Brendesha M. Tynes
Description: An APA article by Brendesha M. Tynes on the experiences of Black, Indigenous and adolescents of colour in online learning environments. "Cyberbullying researchers are beginning to understand the race-related experiences of adolescents of color."
Comparing Feedback from Faculty Interactions and Virtual Assessment Software in the Development of Psychomotor Skills in Preclinical Fixed Prosthodontics
Authors: Ramtin Sadid‐Zadeh, Elizabeth H. D'Angelo, Joseph Gambacorta
Description: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of virtual assessment software as a means of immediate feedback for preclinical fixed prosthodontics course.
Conducting a High-Stakes OSCE in a COVID-19 Environment
Authors: Katharine Boursicot, Sandra Kemp, Thun How Ong, Limin Wijaya, Sok Hong Goh, Kirsty Freeman, Ian Curran
Description: This paper is to document our experience of planning and conducting an OSCE during the COVID-19 pandemic, so that others in similar circumstances will be able to plan and make suitable adjustments to the clinical skills examinations that ensure the validity and reliability of such high-stakes assessments (Lockyer, Carraccio et al., 2017) whilst protecting the safety of all participants, minimizing risk and maintaining defensibility to key stakeholders.
COVID-19 Impact and Virtual Medical Education
Author: Shima Tabatabai
Description: This commentary discusses how this pandemic may affect medical education. In this commentary, the author highlights the importance of virtual education and the potential implications of integrating virtual simulation technologies into medical education for the future of clinical competency learning and assessment.
Engaging Telepractice in your Occupational Therapy Practice
Authors: Ontario Society of Occupational Therapists
Type: Tip Sheet
Description: Offers considerations for implementing virtual (a.k.a. telepractice) care and list of relevant resources to support OT Practice virtually.
Effectiveness of Virtual Medical Teaching During the COVID-19 Crisis: Systematic Review
Author: Robyn-Jenia Wilcha
Description: The objective of this study was to review the advantages and disadvantages of virtual medical teaching for medical students during the COVID-19 pandemic based on the current emerging literature.
Medical and Surgical Education Challenges and Innovations in the COVID-19 Era: A Systematic Review
Authors: Aikaterini Dedeilia, Marinos G. Sotiropoulos, John Gerrard Hanrahan, Deepa Janga, Panagiotis Dedeilias, Michail Sideris
Description: The aim of this systematic review was to identify the challenges imposed on medical and surgical education by the COVID-19 pandemic, and the proposed innovations enabling the continuation of medical student and resident training.
Online Learning during the COVID-19 Pandemic
Author: Yoshiko Iwai
Type: Blog Post
Description: Personal reflection of a medical student in the US & their experience with Zoom learning during the pandemic.
Perceptions of Medical Students Towards Online Teaching During the COVID-19 Pandemic: a National Cross-Sectional Survey of 2721 UK Medical Students
Authors: Samiullah Dost, Aleena Hossain, Mai Shehab, Aida Abdelwahed, Lana Al-Nusair
Objectives: To investigate perceptions of medical students on the role of online teaching in facilitating medical education during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Telementoring Systems in the Operating Room: a New Approach in Medical Training
Authors: Juan P Wachs, Gerardo Gomez
Description: This paper discusses the challenges and innovations related to the use of telementoring systems in the operating room.
‘The Virtual Check-In’: A tool to Facilitate Virtual Patient Interaction for Early Clinical Learners in a Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship
Authors: Aaron Johnston, Kendra Barrick, Farah Jivraj, Rithesh Ram
Description: In response to restrictions on learner placements in clinical environments during the COVID-19 pandemic the authors developed a tool, ‘The Virtual Check-In’, for clinical clerks in the University of Calgary Longitudinal Integrated Clerkship. These learners, who had been pulled from their rural and remote communities because of the pandemic, used the tool to continue to develop their clinical skills while working with their preceptors and patients online. This paper describes the rapid development of the tool using Kern’s principles for curriculum development and implementation, the format and uses of the final tool, and its potential use in other contexts.
Twelve Tips for OSCE-style Tele-assessment
Authors: Raymond Lewandowski, Angela Stratton, Tarun Sen Gupta, Michelle Cooper
Description: The Australian College of Rural and Remote Medicine (ACRRM) has developed a flexible ‘tele-assessment’ approach to the delivery of its assessment modalities. Candidates can sit their examination remotely, close to their place of practice, which reduces the need for rural doctors - both candidates and examiners - to leave their communities for the purpose of assessment.
Seven Tips for Clinical Supervision in the Time of COVID19
Authors: Karen Schultz, Alexander Singer, Ivy Oadansan
Type: Journal Article
Description: Virtual care (VC) rapidly has become the preferred care model in family medicine settings during the COVID-19 pandemic. Both
residents and preceptors must rapidly adapt and develop new skills to provide and supervise virtual care. The College of Family Physicians of Canada (CFPC) created a VC supervision guide for family medicine residents and preceptors by quickly mobilizing a consensus driven approach leveraging existing CFPC educational committees, representing a broad range of teachers and residents in the country. The guide can be adapted to other settings and is provided in the hopes of being helpful to all receptors providing VC and (virtual) supervision during the pandemic.
Blended Learning: Ten Tips on How to Implement it into a Curriculum in Healthcare Education
Authors: Inga Hege, Daniel Tolks, Martin Adler, Anja Härtl
The Use of Social Media in Graduate Medical Education: A Systematic Review
Authors: Madeline Sterling, Peggy Leung, Drew Wright, Tara F. Bishop
10 Best Practices for Designing Blended Learning
Author: Connie Malamed
Description: Originally, blended learning referred to adding an online component to instructor-led training or classroom education. Now, blended learning refers to the use of more than one delivery method to provide and enhance training and support. This is one way to add continued support to people on their learning journey.
Connecting Simulation and Healthcare improvement. BMJ Quality and Safety
Author: Victoria Brazil, Eve Isabelle Purdy, Komal Bajaj
Description: Simulation has an established role in the education and training of healthcare professionals, but its function as a healthcare quality improvement (QI) tool is more emergent. In this edition of the journal, Ajmi and colleagues report on a simulation-based intervention that improved door-to-needle times and patient outcomes in acute ischaemic stroke.
Design Thinking–Informed Simulation
Authors: Andrew Petrosoniak, Christopher Hicks, Lee Barratt, Dominic Gascon, Candis Kokoski, Doug Campbell, Kari White, Glen Bandiera, Margaret Moy Lum-Kwong, Lori Nemoy, Ryan Brydges
Description: Introduction: Designing new healthcare facilities is complex and transitions to new clinical environments carry high risks, as unanticipated problems may arise resulting in inefficient
care and patient harm. Design thinking, a human-centered design method, represents a unique framework to support the planning, testing, and evaluation of new clinical spaces throughout all phases of construction. Healthcare simulation has been used to test new clinical spaces, yet most report using simulation only in the late design stages. Moreover, healthcare design models have potentially underused human factors approaches calling for human-centered design. We applied a multimodal simulation-based approach underpinned by the principles of design thinking throughout the planning and construction stages of a newly renovated academic emergency department.
First-year Analysis of the Operating Room Black Box Study
Authors: James J. Jung, Peter Juni, Gerald Lebovic, and Teodor Grantcharov
Objective: To characterize intraoperative errors, events, and distractions, and measure technical skills of surgeons in minimally invasive surgery practice.
Health Professions Digital Education on Clinical Practice Guidelines: a Systematic Review by Digital Health Education Collaboration
Authors: Lorainne Tudor Car, Aijia Soong, Bhone Myint Kyaw, Kee Leng Chua, Naomi Low-Beer, Azeem Majeed
Description: Clinical practice guidelines are an important source of information, designed to help clinicians integrate research evidence into their clinical practice. Digital education is increasingly used for clinical practice guideline dissemination and adoption. Our aim was to evaluate the effectiveness of digital education in improving the adoption of clinical practice guidelines.
Improving Simulation Accessibility in a Hospital Setting
Authors: Rory A. H. Trawber, Greg M. Sweetman, Leah R. Proctor
Description: This article documents the creation and implementation of a unique approach to translational simulation in a large, tertiary hospital setting. By creating a simulation consultation service, the ethos of translational simulation can be made more accessible to all areas of the hospital. Through the referral-consultation process, simulation exercises can be specifically designed, in conjunction with the referring individual/team, to directly address specific objectives. The service provides a wide range of multiprofession, multidiscipline simulation expertise and ensures simulation facilitation in a consistent, safe, and objective specific manner accessible to all areas of a large, hospital setting.
Lessons Learned in Preparing for and Responding to the Early Stages of the COVID-19 Pandemic: One Simulation’s Program Experience Adapting to the New Normal
Authors: Ryan Brydges, Douglas M. Campbell, Lindsay Beavers, Nazanin Khodadoust, Paula Iantomasi, Kristen Sampson, Alberto Goffi, Filipe N. Caparica Santos and Andrew Petrosoniak
Description: Use of simulation to ensure an organization is ready for significant events, like COVID-19 pandemic, has shifted from a “backburner” training tool to a “first choice” strategy for ensuring individual, team, and system readiness. In this report, we summarize our simulation program’s response during the COVID-19 pandemic, including the associated challenges and lessons learned. We also reflect on anticipated changes within our program as we adapt to a “new normal” following this pandemic. We intend for this report to function as a guide for other simulation programs to consult as this COVID-19 crisis continues to unfold, and during future challenges within global healthcare systems. We argue that this pandemic has cemented simulation programs as fundamental for any healthcare organization interested in ensuring its workforce can adapt in times of crisis. With the right team and set of partners, we believe that sustained investments in a simulation program will amplify into immeasurable impacts across a healthcare system.
Podcasting in Nursing and Midwifery Education: An Integrative Review
Authors: Siobhan O'Connor, Claire S. Daly, Juliet MacArthur, Gunilla Borglin, Richard G. Boothf
Description: Podcasting is used in higher education so various digital resources can be shared with students. This review aims to synthesise evidence on podcasting in nursing and midwifery education.
Translational Simulation: from Description to Action
Authors: Christopher Peter Nickson , Andrew Petrosoniak, Stephanie Barwick, and Victoria Brazil
Type: Open Access Article
Description: This article describes an operational framework for implementing translational simulation in everyday practice. The framework, based on an input-process-output model, is developed from a critical review of the existing translational simulation literature and the collective experience of the authors’ affiliated translational simulation services. The article describes how translational simulation may be used to explore work environments and/or people in them, improve quality through targeted interventions focused on clinical performance/patient outcomes, and be used to design and test planned infrastructure or interventions. Representative case vignettes are used to show how the framework can be applied to real world healthcare problems, including clinical space testing, process development, and culture. Finally, future directions for translational simulation are discussed. As such, the article provides a road map for practitioners who seek to address health service outcomes using translational simulation.
Use of Web-Based Game in Neonatal Resuscitation - is it Effective?
Authors: Cheo Lian Yeo, Selina Kah Ying Ho, Vina Canlas Tagamolila, Sridhar Arunachalam, Srabani Samanta Bharadwaj, Woei Bing Poon, Mary Grace Tan, Priyantha Ebenezer Edison, Wai Yan Yip, Abdul Alim Abdul Haium, Pooja Agarwal Jayagobi, Shrenik Jitendrakumar Vora, Simrita Kaur Khurana, John Carson Allen, Ereno Imelda Lustestica
Description: Knowledge and skills decline within months post simulation-based training in neonatal resuscitation. To empower ‘Millennial’ learners to take control of their own learning, a single-player, unguided web-based Neonatal Resuscitation Game was designed. The present study investigates the effectiveness of the game on retention of resuscitation knowledge and skills.
Using Data to Enhance Performance and Improve Quality and Safety in Surgery
Authors: Mitchell G. Goldenberg, James Jung, Teodor P. Grantcharov
Video Feedback and e-Learning Enhances Laboratory Skills and Engagement in Medical Laboratory Science Students
Authors: Rebecca Donkin, Elizabeth Askew, Hollie Stevenson
Description: Traditionally, the training of medical laboratory science students has taken place in the laboratory and has been led by academic and pathology experts in a face-to-face context. In recent years, budgetary pressures, increasing student enrolments and limited access to laboratory equipment have resulted in reduced staff-student contact hours in medical laboratory science education. While this restructure in resources has been challenging, it has encouraged innovation in online blended learning.